Glasgow Herald buildings

M072 Glasgow Herald buildings

Address: Buchanan Street, Glasgow G1 3NU
Date: 1892; 1893–9; 1902; 1905–7; 1909–10; 1911; 1913–16
Client: George Outram & Co.
Authorship: Authorship category 1 (Mackintosh) (Mackintosh)

Photograph of detail of Mitchell Street entrance, Glasgow Herald Building

Origins

The Glasgow Herald, first published in 1783, moved from St Vincent Place to Buchanan Street on 9 November 1868. 1 First the rear part of its new premises, stretching back as far as Mitchell Street, was rebuilt to house the newspaper's despatch department and machine rooms; then, between 1878 and 1880, the front offices (now 63–69 Buchanan Street) were replaced with an imposing classical block designed by James Sellars of Campbell Douglas & Sellars. 2

Colour photograph of Buchanan Street front of Glasgow Herald Building

Sellars died in 1888, and his former assistant John Keppie entered into partnership with John Honeyman. Keppie's association with Sellars was presumably the reason why George Outram & Co., the publishers of the Glasgow Herald, turned to John Honeyman & Keppie to design a minor addition at the rear of the Buchanan Street building in May 1892. On 7 August that year, an adjoining building at the S.E. corner of Mitchell Lane and Mitchell Street was destroyed in a blaze that also damaged the Herald building, and again John Honeyman & Keppie were employed to make repairs. 3 But the fire provided an opportunity for much more extensive changes, and when the corner site was offered for sale the following year, it was acquired by Outram's, paving the way for a general enlargement and rebuilding that would occupy John Honeyman & Keppie until 1899. 4

This redevelopment had four distinct elements: internal alterations to the Buchanan Street offices; the remodelling and upward extension of an existing block on the S. side of Mitchell Lane; a large new 'middle building' in the centre of the site; and – the most important addition – a very large new building in Mitchell Street on the site of the 1892 fire. Completion was celebrated with a full-page illustrated feature, published in the Glasgow Herald to mark the opening of its remodelled Buchanan Street offices. 5

Computer assisted drawing of block plan showing building phases

Mitchell Street building

Function

The basement of the Mitchell Street building housed printing presses, and the ground floor of the S. half contained the despatch room; an L-shaped cartway running from Mitchell Street to Mitchell Lane divided it in two at ground level, giving access for vans to collect the day's newspapers. Space was also provided for the editorial department of the sister paper, the Evening Times. 6 The rest of the building was intended as income-generating lettable space to be rented out for shops or offices (a photograph published in 1900 shows a 'To Let' sign prominently displayed above the Mitchell Street entrance), but over time it was entirely taken over for newspaper use. The corner tower housed a water tank for the sprinkler system.

Photograph of Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of 'To let' sign, Glasgow Herald Building

Construction timetable

The two halves were built in separate phases: first, between March 1894 and April 1895, came the N. half, including the water tower and main stairs, followed by the S. half between February 1896 and January 1897. Accommodation in the first phase was already being marketed in January 1895, and in the second by the middle of November 1896. 7

Authorship

'The whole of the buildings have been designed ... by John Honeyman & Keppie', wrote the Herald in 1899, referring to the entire newspaper complex, 'and the work has been carried out under the personal supervision of Mr. Keppie.' 8 There is no reason to doubt that such an important project would have been closely supervised by one of the firm's partners, and the Mitchell Street building has features in common with other John Honeyman & Keppie projects of the 1890s that can be tentatively grouped together as Keppie's work. The ground-floor openings with their cast-iron lintels in particular recall the Cheapside grain store and the Skin and hide market in Greendyke Street. However, in a letter written to Hermann Muthesius while the Herald complex was still in progress, Mackintosh claimed responsibility for the design of the Mitchell Street building, and regretted that his role could not be publicly acknowledged because he was merely an employee and not a partner:

Although the building in Mitchell Street here was designed by me the Architects are or were Messrs Honeyman & Keppie – who employ me as assistant. So if you reproduce any photographs of the building you must give the architects' name – not mine. You will see that this is very unfortunate for me, but I hope when brighter days come I shall be able to work for myself entirely and claim my work as mine. 9

It is possible that Mackintosh was overstating his creative role, but a number of design features that recur elsewhere in his work make an early appearance in the Mitchell Street building, and his handwriting appears very extensively on many of the working drawings. An anonymous correspondent writing for the Builders' Journal and Architectural Engineer in 1895 detected Mackintosh's 'individuality' in the treatment of the tower especially. 10

Photograph of Glasgow Herald Building tower from N.W.

Exterior

This was one of a new breed of high-rise commercial blocks that came to dominate the centre of Glasgow in the 1890s, made possible by the introduction of electric lifts and structural steel. With their towering facades of red Locharbriggs sandstone, these new arrivals transformed the urban scene in a way that impressed contemporary observers such as the authors of Glasgow in 1901:

The last few years have seen a change come over the town; to-day the eye is uplifted at every turn by great picturesque erections of red stone that are adding a kind of jocund quality to the life of our streets, like good-humoured red-faced giants in ranks of rather pallid men. Within a radius of half a mile from the Exchange ... the newest comers are breaking up the skyline with an almost startling variety of profile. 11

The principal front to Mitchell Street is framed by matching gabled bays, while a narrower, off-centre gabled bay contains the entrance to the upper floors and marks the internal division into N. and S. halves.

Photograph of Mitchell Street entrance bay, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of Mitchell Street N. bay, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of Mitchell Street S. bay, Glasgow Herald Building

Very large windows separated by square piers fill the ground floor. These openings are mostly square headed, with cast-iron lintels resting on corbels, but three round-arched openings correspond to the former cartway and the despatch room.

Photograph of ground floor to Mitchell Street, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of cast-iron lintel, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of corbel and cast-iron lintel, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of Mitchell Street entrance, Glasgow Herald Building

The windows above vary in shape between floors – vertical openings grouped in two and threes, or single, broad openings with square or shallow-arched heads – but they are consistent within each floor. For the most part they are treated simply, with minimal mouldings, the small-paned casements deeply recessed to emphasise the thickness of the wall. A strong cornice cuts right across below the top two floors. Parts of these floors are set back slightly behind a parapet, sections of which sweep down to become shallower in front of the windows (like the later boundary walls at the Glasgow School of Art and Scotland Street School). On the top floor, pedimented dormers with boldly projecting cills create a richly textured skyline. The increasing projection and elaboration of the building as it rises through its cliff-like lower floors to its craggy top stage is similar in overall feeling, though not in detail, to a 17th-century Scottish tower house.

Photograph of Glasgow Herald Building tower from below

The N. elevation, overlooking narrow Mitchell Lane, is similar but simpler. The E. elevation, facing the former cartway, is utilitarian, except for the polygonal boiler chimney that rises above the roof to an arcaded and battlemented top, making a striking contrast with the water tower.

Photograph of Mitchel lane façade of Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of chimney shaft and stair windows, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of Glasgow Herald Building tower and chimneyPhotograph of chimney and stair roof, Glasgow Herald Building

Photograph of Glasgow Herald Building tower from West Nile StreetThe 44.5 m water tower at the corner of Mitchell Street and Mitchell Lane is the dominant feature, especially when viewed from West Nile Street to the N. Its great height was necessary to feed a system of 'roof drenchers' – perforated, galvinised iron tubes running along the roof ridges and window tops, capable of supplying 'a flowing shield of water' against flying sparks. 19th-century Buchanan Street had 'an unenviable notoriety for destructive fires', and on a number of occasions the Herald had narrowly escaped damage caused by fire spreading from neighbouring buildings. 12 Internal sprinklers were first installed in 1888, and by early 1891 the external drenchers (devised by the paper's manager, Alexander Sinclair) were also in place. 13 They were extended to the buildings erected by John Honeyman & Keppie after 1894.

The water tower is kept within the footprint of the building, and has no separate identity until it emerges above the roofline, boldly corbelled out. Carved decoration at the angles of the upper stage gives it a slightly bulging profile, hinting at the 8000 gallon (36,369 litre) reservoir within. The crowning ogee-roofed turret, set back behind a parapet, has strong echoes of James MacLaren's 1887–9 tower for the High School of Stirling, a building that Mackintosh sketched. 14 Another of his sketchbooks contains what may be a preliminary or alternative design for the Herald tower, showing the distinctive ogee roof and undulating parapet. 15 At the S.E. corner, a substantial square chimney stack is partly embedded in the tower and rises above the level of the turret.

Photograph of Glasgow Herald Building tower from N.W.Photograph of Glasgow Herald Building tower from W.Photograph of tower, High School of Stirling Colour photograph of sketch by Mackintosh of tower of High School of Stirling

Interior

The door in the middle of the Mitchell Street facade led originally via an entrance passage to the service core of stairs, lift, toilets and boiler chimney, rising all the way to the attic. Aligned with the ground-floor entrance passage, a bank of walk-in safes and toilets on each floor continued the division into N. and S. halves. The corner tower contained a small octagonal room on each floor, but otherwise the upper storeys were open spaces, which could be subdivided by timber and glass partitions to suit the needs of tenants. Decorative finishes throughout appear to have been very simple. There were few fireplaces, heating being generally by steam pipes. Lighting was by electricity, generated on site and supplied to tenants 'at Lower Rate than that of the Corporation'. 16 Ventilation was assisted by the boiler chimney, a brick shaft enclosing an air chamber with an iron flue rising through it. Ducts connected this chamber with the Mitchell Street building, and the hot air rising around the flue created a draught that sucked out contaminated air. 17

Materials

The main elevations are of red Locharbriggs sandstone ashlar, above a basement of red granite. Where the plaster has been stripped from the internal walls, they can be seen to be of rubble and red brick. Surprisingly, red brick is used for the external wall of the turret too. The E. elevation and chimney are a mixture of buff and glazed white brick – useful for reflecting daylight in dark, confined spaces – with sandstone dressings.

Photograph of brick construction inside tower, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of glazed brick, Glasgow Herald Building

The Mitchell Street building was described as 'fireproof' in the contemporary press. 18 The internal structure contains relatively little timber, being largely of incombustible steel, iron, concrete, brick and stone. Cast-iron columns with lobed capitals support the floors, which are composed of I-section rolled steel beams with I-section rolled iron joists laid on top.

Photograph of cast-iron capital, Glasgow Herald Building

The spaces between the joists are filled with concrete – the Arrol Bridge & Roof Co. supplied almost £1600-worth for the Mitchell Street and Mitchell Lane buildings – with wood used only for the floor boards. Such fire-resistant floors were widely used in commercial buildings by this date, a system of iron joists with concrete infill having been patented as early as 1844 by Henry Hawes Fox. 19 However, the concrete used for the Herald was said to be of a new and superior type, and a test was carried out at the unfinished building on 11 September 1895 to demonstate its properties to an audience of insurers and architects. 20 Invented by Mr Boyd Wilson of Messrs Arrol, it was made with diatomite, a clay-like mineral mined on Skye. Advertisements for space to let in the new building drew attention to its fire-resistant construction ('The floors are made of Special Concrete and Iron Joists ...'), and claimed that 'in consequence ... the Fire Insurance Companies take Discount off the ordinary rates'. 21 The roof trusses are of iron, with timber to carry the slates; the window frames are timber.

Photograph of cast-iron capital on top floor of Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of roof truss, Glasgow Herald Building

Style and decoration

The authors of Glasgow in 1901 noted that the city's large new office buildings showed 'a growing tendency to accentuate the constructional lines'. 22 This is true of the Mitchell Street building, where decoration is used sparingly, and where the main impression is not of surface richness but of sheer walls, disciplined into a grid by the unbroken verticals of the tower and downspouts and by strong horizontal divisions between the floors.

The distinctive stonecarving (by James Young) uses motifs familiar from Italian Renaissance architecture, but stretched and twisted in unfamiliar ways. The upper stage of the tower is given a slightly swelling, bulbous outline by extremely long, thin shields carved at the angles. With their stylised ribbons, they are derived from the heraldic shields sometimes carved at the corners of Italian Renaissance palaces (for example the early 16th-century Palazzo Guadagni, Florence, which Mackintosh sketched on his 1891 Italian tour). 23 The same motif occurs in Mackintosh's 1892 Glasgow School of Art Club invitation, and above the entrance hall doors at Craigie Hall (1893–4). At the Herald, however, the shields are stretched almost beyond recognition, and the ribbons have taken on a life of their own, somewhere between Gothic foliage and the whiplash curves of Art Nouveau.

Photograph of shield at angle of tower, Glasgow Herald Building Colour photograph of sketch by Mackintosh of Palazzo Guadagni, Florence Invitation to Glasgow School of Art Club meeting, 19 November 1892, by Mackintosh

The bosses below the shields, and the carving above the tower entrance and its flanking windows, are more purely abstract, but they too weave together forms derived from nature and from classical architecture.

Photograph of bosses at angles of tower, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of carving above tower entrance, Glasgow Herald BuildingPhotograph of carving above tower window, Glasgow Herald Building

Above the top-floor windows of the gabled end bays, the pediments incorporate pairs of balusters, elongated keystones and wiry scrolls, which again recall the Italian Renaissance fantasy of the 1892 invitation and have parallels in the woodwork of the Glasgow Art Club (1892–3) and the library at Craigie Hall.

Photograph of window, Glasgow Herald Building

Features derived from Scottish historical sources include the bell-shaped pediments of the dormer windows and their distinctive depressed ogee architraves, which recur in several John Honeyman & Keppie projects of the 1890s such as Martyrs Public School and the Queen Margaret College Anatomical Department.

Other features have no obvious historical precedent, and because they are echoed in Mackintosh's later work, it is tempting to see in them evidence of his creative involvement. The tower parapet is drawn up into hood-like peaks that look organic, as if the stone had grown naturally into this shape, and the upper corners of the central entrance bay are treated in the same way. They have parallels in the swelling shape of the aisle capitals at Queen's Cross Church, and in the mouldings above the first-floor windows on the W. facade of the Glasgow School of Art. The fourth-floor tower window has a single, central column supporting a transom that cuts across at the springing of the arch, a composition found in more developed form in the male staff room and headmaster's room at the art school. 24

With its severe lines and sparing use of novel ornamental details, the Mitchell Street building contrasts strongly with the mainstream of contemporary commercial architecture in Glasgow. A telling comparison can be made with T. L. Watson's nearby offices for the Glasgow Citizen newspaper at 24 St Vincent Place (1885–9). 25 The exuberant Franco-Flemish Renaissance facade is encrusted with carving, including the paper's name. Unlike these offices for the Citizen, however, the Mitchell Street building was not the public face of the Glasgow Herald – that role was already filled by Sellars's Buchanan Street block – and its relative simplicity may not have been an aesthetic choice so much as a response to its setting in a secondary street and its anonymous status as a largely speculative office block.

Colour photograph of Glasgow Evening Citizen building

Critical reception

In describing its new premises, the Glasgow Herald stressed that practical considerations had determined its appearance, noting that the 'general design ... is based upon the requirements of the building, and is one in which these requirements have been provided without sacrifice to a most interesting structure'. 26

Colour photograph of 'Glasgow Herald Buildings', 'Glasgow Herald', 20 May 1899, p. 4

Mackintosh's perspective drawing was shown at the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts in 1894 (868), and again at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1895 (490). The British Architect published it in 1895, and praised in particular the building's austerity and restrained use of ornament:

This admirable drawing sets forth one of the most noticeable modern buildings in Glasgow, a building which may fairly claim to be a genuinely modern development, and – what so many even clever things miss – not innocent of a quality of proportion and emphasis such as makes architecture a thing independent of mere style. It is erected on a corner site bounded by Mitchell Street and Mitchell Lane. The streets unfortunately are very narrow, and this has been kept prominently in view, the vertical spaces being kept as simple as possible and not broken up more than is necessary by bands or mouldings. 27

The following year, in a review of recent Glasgow architecture, the same journal ranked the Herald building – still under construction – along with J. J. Burnet's Athenaeum and William Leiper's Sun Insurance Offices as a building with which

there is little or nothing in other towns to compare ... [It] ranks first of any modern buildings we know of for boldness and originality of treatment allied with some sense of architectural dignity, good proportion and refined detail. It verges dangerously on the confines of pure eccentricity in parts [here the reviewer was perhaps thinking of the carving] but that does not sensibly injure its architectural quality. That this kind of building, designed for the most part with severe restraint, need not be unpicturesque is amply evidenced by the striking angle tourelle crowned by a flat outlined cupola. 28

The Builders' Journal too was struck by the tower, and went so far as to ascribe its unusualness to Mackintosh: 'The design of the building is interesting, and displays, more especially in the treatment of the Tower, the individuality of Mr Chas. R. McIntosh. While reserving an opinion on much of the detail, which is novel to the verge of eccentricity, one may without hesitation express unqualified admiration at the successful effort which has been made to depart from anything hackneyed or jejune.' 29

All these reviews were written before construction of the S. half, but by 1898 the Builder could appraise the completed building in a wide-ranging overview of Glasgow architecture. It thought Sellars's Buchanan Street offices for the Herald:

worthy of note, if only to contrast their correct classicism and wealth of detail with the curious, plain, but interesting building just erected for the same paper in Mitchell-street by Messrs. Honeyman & Keppie, in the very latest, entirely original, style, with big simple mouldings, long flat curves, and a heavy angle tower surmounted by an ogee roof so flat that hardly more than the edge is visible from anywhere in the immediate neighbourhood. 30

Once again, Mackintosh's perspective drawing was used to illustrate the article.

But perhaps the most significant contemporary critical response came from Hermann Muthesius, who included the Herald building in his survey of recent British architecture, Die englische Baukunst der Gegenwart, published in Leipzig in 1900. This was among the earliest publications to bring Mackintosh's work before a continental European readership. As well as a dramatic photograph that emphasised the powerful skyline, Muthesius included a detailed plan of the ground floor and gave a thorough description of the interior layout (he mistakenly thought the upper floors were residential, misled perhaps by the term 'flats' used to describe these lettable storeys). Like the British critics, he admired the simple, bold composition of the facade while expressing reservations about its idiosyncratic details. Having been told by Mackintosh that the design must be credited to John Honeyman & Keppie, Muthesius nevertheless included a veiled reference to what he believed to be its true authorship: 'The singular composition of the building appears to have been shaped by the sentiments of the group of young Glasgow artists who in recent years have excelled themselves in the field of the applied arts with their distinctive achievements.' 31

Remodelling of Mitchell Lane building

This appears to have been carried out at the same time as the Mitchell Street buildng, and involved adding a fifth storey and a new staircase to a pre-exisiting building.

'Middle building', and remodelling of Buchanan Street building

Plans for a new 'middle building' behind the Buchanan Street block were approved by Glasgow Dean of Guild Court on 13 August 1896, but construction did not begin until March the following year. 32 Further plans had been approved by this time, on 14 January 1897, which may have included alterations to the Buchanan Street building. At any rate, work on the new middle building and alterations to the old Buchanan Street building proceeded together, and 'plastering and finishing' in both parts was in progress in January and February 1898. 33

Middle building

The middle building, demolished after 1980, seems to have comprised four floors of newspaper offices above a basement, and was linked to the Buchanan Street building on the E., the Mitchell Lane building on the N., and the Mitchell Street building on the W. These tall neighbours hid it from the surrounding streets, and its exterior was completely utilitarian. The internal structure was the same as that of the Mitchell Street building: cast-iron columns supporting floors of steel, iron and concrete, with a partly glazed roof on iron trusses.

It contained two office interiors (known from sketches published in 1899 and a later photograph) that show evidence of Mackintosh's involvement. 34 One of these, the Editor's Room, was in the S.E. corner of the first floor. The plans and elevations approved by the Dean of Guild Court show it with windows on the N. side only, overlooking a light well, but the illustration published in the Glasgow Herald in 1899 shows windows on the S. side too, flanking the fireplace, so the design must have been modified. The room was panelled, and had a plaster ceiling with interlacing mouldings and an overmantel incorporating book shelves, all in an unadventurous Renaissance style. However, the beaten metal canopy of the fireplace and the curvilinear leaded glazing in the lower part of the windows show an individuality that suggests they were designed by Mackintosh, and some of the doors have panels with asymmetrically curving tops, like his 1898–9 front door for 233 St Vincent Street.

Much more distinctive was the Manager's Room. Not shown on the 1896 Dean of Guild plans – the layout of the ground floor must have been modified after they were approved – it was located immediately below the Editor's Room. It was lit by a glazed roof over its E. end, and by tall windows with curvilinear glazing bars in the E. wall, which admitted borrowed light from the public office on the ground floor of the Buchanan Street building. Its walls were panelled with broad, butt-jointed planks, like the contemporary Glasgow School of Art, with incised squares used as decoration on the fireplace (the earliest known appearance of this important motif in Mackintosh's work). 35

Buchanan Street building

The ground floor of the original Buchanan Street building, part of which had been occupied by shops, was converted into a public office for the Herald's publishing and advertising departments. The entrance from Buchanan Street opened into a broad central passage flanked by monumental Renaissance arcades, with counters on each side. One of the architects' drawings indicates that a frieze of 'modelled plaster panels with the arms of the principal cities of the world' was proposed for the spaces between the arcade piers. 36 The drawing includes a rough sketch of Glasgow's arms that may have been designed by Mackintosh, but it is unclear if the work was carried out. The passage led to the single-storey cashier's office on the ground floor of the middle building, lit from its domed roof.

Later history

In July 1980 the Herald left the buildings it had occupied for more than a century. 37 They were acquired by Scottish Widows, who in 1993 demolished the Buchanan Street building and built shops and offices behind its preserved facade. 38 The 'middle building' and Mitchell Lane building were both demolished and replaced; the Mitchell Street building was mothballed.

As part of Glasgow's bid to be named 'UK City of Architecture & Design 1999', under an Arts Council initiative that associated individual cities with different artistic ativities in the years running up to the millennium, it was proposed to create a permanent exhibition centre for architecture and design. Following the success of the bid in 1994, an architectural competition to convert the redundant Mitchell Street building for this purpose was organised by the Glasgow 1999 Festival Company and won by Page & Park of Glasgow in 1995. 39 Work began on site in November 1997, and the converted and extended building reopened in July 1999, renamed 'The Lighthouse'. It includes a permanent display about Mackintosh, called the Mackintosh Interpretation Centre, designed by Gareth Hoskins Architects, Glasgow. 40 Space is let to commercial tenants.

The 1890s fabric has been largely preserved and carefully repaired, while a large steel-framed E. extension (on the site formerly occupied by the Mitchell Lane arm of the cartway and part of the 'middle building') provides a dramatic new visitor entrance and reception area on Mitchell Lane. Escalators rise up a full-height atrium, giving access to the upper floors of the original building and to a new viewing tower at the S.E. corner.

There have been two major structural changes to John Honeyman & Keppie's interior. First, the spine wall between the N. and S. halves has been largely removed and replaced with a system of steel columns. Second, floors have been removed from the corner tower and a helical steel stair inserted, giving access from the third floor to the ogee-roofed turret. New steel ring beams stiffen the tower where the floors have been removed. The whole conversion and extension scheme is characteristic of its time in the way it boldly juxtaposes modern materials and design with the historic fabric, rather than trying to imitate the earlier work or blend unobtrusively with it. Page & Park have said that their design developed from their interpretation of the original building as a symbolic representation of the growth and decay of a flower. 41

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Notes:

1: Glasgow Herald, 20 May 1899, p. 4.

2: Glasgow Herald, 29 November 1880, p. 6.

3: Glasgow Herald, 8 August 1892, p. 4; The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie visit book, GLAHA 53060, p. 26.

4: See advertisement in, for example, Glasgow Herald, 10 July 1893, p. 3.

5: Glasgow Herald, 20 May 1899, p. 4.

6: Glasgow Herald, 20 May 1899, p. 4.

7: See advertisements in, for example, Glasgow Herald, 28 January 1895, p. 4; 17 November 1896, p. 9.

8: Glasgow Herald, 20 May 1899 p. 4.

9: Berlin, Werkbundarchiv, Museum der Dinge: Hermann Muthesius Estate, letter from Mackintosh to Hermann Muthesius, 11 May 1898.

10: Builders' Journal and Architectural Engineer, 1, 18 June 1895, p. 301.

11: James Hamilton Muir, Glasgow in 1901, Glasgow and Edinburgh: William Hodge & Co., 1901, pp. 139–40.

12: David L. Laidlaw, 'The growing fire hazard of central city districts, and the means by which it may be diminished', Transactions of the Insurance and Actuarial Society of Glasgow, 3rd series, 3, [1891]; Alexander Sinclair, Fifty Years of Newspaper Life, 1845–1895, Glasgow: privately printed, [1895], pp. 168–9.

13: Alexander Sinclair, Fifty Years of Newspaper Life, 1845–1895, Glasgow: privately printed, [1895], pp. 168–9.

14: Dublin, National Library of Ireland: PD 2011 TX, p. 28.

15: Dublin, National Library of Ireland: PD 2009 TX, p. 23.

16: See advertisements in, for example, Glasgow Herald, 28 January 1895, p. 4; 17 November 1896, p. 9.

17: Glasgow Herald, 20 May 1899, p. 4.

18: British Architect, 43, 8 February 1895, p. 94.

19: J. Sutherland, D. Humm and M. Chrimes, eds, Historic Concrete: The Background to Appraisal, London: Thomas Telford, 2001, pp. 49–50.

20: Glasgow Herald, 12 September 1895, p. 9; Building Industries, 6, 16 September 1895, pp. 83–4.

21: Glasgow Herald, 17 November 1896, p. 9.

22: James Hamilton Muir, Glasgow in 1901, Glasgow and Edinburgh: William Hodge & Co., 1901, pp. 139–40.

23: Dublin: National Library of Ireland, PD 2009 TX, p. 61.

24: Curiously, Mackintosh's perspective drawing for the Herald building shows a triple-arched window in this position. The drawing also differs from the building in showing curved bow windows on the second and third floors, embedded in the thickness of the wall like the board room windows at the Glasgow School of Art. These windows are in fact slightly canted bays.

25: British Architect, 31, 31 May 1889, p. 388.

26: Glasgow Herald, 20 May 1899, p. 4.

27: British Architect, 43, 8 February 1895, p. 94.

28: British Architect, 46, 30 October 1896, p. 305.

29: Builders' Journal, 1, 18 June 1895, p. 301.

30: 'The Architecture of our Large Provincial Towns: XVI, Glasgow', Builder, 75, 9 July 1898, pp. 21–34.

31: Hermann Muthesius, Die englische Baukunst der Gegenwart, Leipzig and Berlin: Cosmos, 1900, p. 60 (translation by Nicky Imrie).

32: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Glasgow Dean of Guild Court proceedings, D-OPW 19/15; Glasgow Dean of Guild Court, Register of Inspections, D-OPW 25/1, p. 131.

33: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Glasgow Dean of Guild Court, Register of Inspections, D-OPW 25/1, pp. 131, 136.

34: Glasgow Herald, 20 May 1899, p. 4; Roger Billcliffe, Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Complete Furniture, Furniture Drawings and Interior Designs, Moffat, Dumfriesshire: Cameron & Hollis, 4th edn, 2009, p. 37.

35: Roger Billcliffe, Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Complete Furniture, Furniture Drawings and Interior Designs, Moffat, Dumfriesshire: Cameron & Hollis, 4th edn, 2009, p. 37.

36: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 52632 (M072-076).

37: Glasgow Herald, 19 July 1980, p. 6.

38: Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 61, Spring 1993, p. 3; Glasgow Herald, 24 July 1993; Glasgow School of Art Archives: records of Glasgow 1999 Festival Co. Ltd, report on the former Glasgow Herald building by Campbell & Arnott Ltd., August 1993, DC 28/2/1/2.

39: Ken Powell, 'A towering achievement', Architects Journal, 210, 12 August 1999, pp. 26–36.

40: Gareth Hoskins, 'The Lighthouse: the Mackintosh Interpretation Centre', Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 74, Autumn 1998, pp. 8–11.

41: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: notes by Paul Sutton of Page & Park, March 1998.