About the Project

Pamela Robertson

Overview     ^

Project aim: to deliver the first holistic study of the architecture of Charles Rennie Mackintosh.

History

Charles Rennie Mackintosh today enjoys a world-wide reputation. He occupied a pivotal point between the Victorian age and the Modern Movement, at a significant period in the emergence of one of Britain's most important Victorian cities. His work has been an inspiration for subsequent generations including Aldo van Eyck, Hans Hollein, Arata Isosaki and Enric Miralles. Yet, despite the extensive literature of the past 50 years, Mackintosh's core activity as an architect is conspicuously under-researched. The first significant overview was undertaken in 1952, by Dr Thomas Howarth, in his pironeering biography, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Modern Movement(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul). But its positioning of Mackintosh as a Modernist is now largely accepted as outmoded, and no subsequent publication has provided an academic foundation comparable to that provided by Roger Billcliffe for the furniture and interiors in his comprehensive catalogue, Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Complete Furniture, Furniture Drawings and Interior Designs, first published in 1979. There is no definitive list of the architectural work; no over-arching analysis of its evolution; no assessment of its importance. This research project aimed to redress that imbalance.

In 2009 The Hunterian at the University of Glasgow, custodian of Mackintosh's Estate and of the pre-eminent Mackintosh Collection, was awarded a major research grant of £650,000 by the Arts and Humanities Research Council for an investigation of Mackintosh's architecture: Mackintosh Architecture: Context, Making and Meaning (MARC). The project set out a) to assess Mackintosh's development and achievements as an architect and b) to investigate the wider context of clients, colleagues, contractors and suppliers.

In addressing these questions, the project aimed to deliver a catalogue raisonné of Mackintosh's architectural projects and those of his architectural practice during the Mackintosh years; a catalogue raisonné of the architectural drawings; biographies of key clients, contractors and suppliers; transcriptions of the office record books (the 'job books'); and analytical essays. All of this material would be made available on a freely-accessible online resource: www.mackintosh-architecture.gla.ac.uk.

Project team

Professor Pamela Robertson, Senior Curator, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow, Principal Investigator 2010–2014

Joseph Sharples, Chief Researcher, new fixed term appointment 2010–2013

Dr Nicky Imrie, Post-Doctoral Researcher, new fixed term appointment 2010–2013

Graeme Cannon, Humanities Advanced Technology Information Institute, University of Glasgow, Systems Developer. 2010–2013

Heather Middleton, Administrator, new fixed term appointment 2010–2014

Historic Scotland and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) were collaborators bringing valuable additional expertise. Both had representatives on the project Steering Group and Editorial Board (see People below). In addition RCAHMS undertook an in-depth photographic survey of ten selected buildings; Historic Scotland provided an evaluation of materials and use of technology.

Timetable

  Year One       Year Two       Year Three       Year Four    
MILESTONES 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3
START-UP X                            
Start of Project X                            
Staff in post X                            
General subject familiarisation X                            
Database in place X                            
Website in place   X                          
IT systems training   X                          
RESEARCH/ DATA ENTRY                              
Complete job books transcription and preliminary building and contractors list     X                        
Complete property archives sift             X                
Complete designs catalogue               X              
Complete literature review               X              
Complete contractors/ clients research               X              
Complete archives sift                   X          
Transcribe selected archival items                     X        
Property surveys                     X        
Complete web essays                       X      
Write bibliography                       X      
Images online                       X      
Complete building entries                       X      
Complete all data entry                       X      
Complete editing                       X      
Complete maintenance plans                       X      
Database to digital archive/ RCAHMS                       X      
Physical archive to HMAG                             X
OUTPUTS                              
Seminar             X                
Web trial                       X      
Web launch                           X  
Exhibition opens                           X  
Conference                             X

Funding

Arts and Humanities Research Council, with additional funding from The Monument Trust, The Pilgrim Trust, and Paul Mellon Centre for the Study of British Art

Outputs

First catalogue raisonné of Mackintosh's architecture
First catalogue raisonné of his architectural drawings
First catalogue of the broader output of the office 1889–1913
First investigation and analysis of the office records 1889–1913
Identification and biographies for a microcosm of those who built late 19th to early 20th-century Glasgow

Website

350 projects; over 500,000 words; 300 biographies; 1200 drawings; 3000 images

Future management

The site is a dynamic resource. Updates of the content will be the responsibility of the Mackintosh Curator, The Hunterian. Web-based management pages will allow database content to be updated and XML content to be revised and uploaded to the website. IT Services at the University of Glasgow will continue to maintain the webserver and the Active Directory network after project completion. This involves regular backups to two locations (one offsite). Archive data related to the project will remain on the dedicated space on the Active Directory network. HATII will ensure the sustainability of server-side scripting, database structures and XML infrastructure.

Citing the catalogue

Pamela Robertson, Joseph Sharples and Nicky Imrie, Mackintosh Architecture: Context, Making and Meaning, www.mackintosh-architecture.gla.ac.uk, University of Glasgow, 2014. Catalogue entries should be referred to as M034 etc.

The Database     ^

Core list of projects

The starting point for the database was the creation of a core list of architectural projects. This was to be a 'long' list, not confined to the known works of Mackintosh, but including anything with which he might have been associated. Early in the project it was decided to include all projects by John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh (JHKM) from the years 1889 to 1913 when Mackintosh worked for the firm, in order to provide valuable context. This effectively increased the number of projects by over 200.

Sources used

The list was compiled primarily from the record books of JHKM. These are held in the Hunterian Art Gallery. The relevant volumes comprise the four job books which cover the Mackintosh years. The job book information was supplemented with data from the office visit book and cash book, also held in the Hunterian.

For every project undertaken by the firm during this period the following data was entered into an Access table: project name and address, client name, first and last page numbers, start date, whether the project was for a new building or for alterations to an existing one, and whether or not any of the job book entry was written in Mackintosh's hand.

The list derived from the job books was compared with the list of works in Alan Crawford, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, London: Thames & Hudson, 1995, pp. 210–12, and any additional architectural projects identified by Crawford were added. These were mostly student works, or works dating from after the JHKM period. A broad definition of 'architectural' was adopted, including, for instance, exhibition stands, gravestones and room settings for exhibitions. Interior design projects were regarded as 'architectural' if they were thought to involve structural alterations. Speculative and unbuilt designs were also included. The augmented list was compared with the lists of works in Hiroaki Kimura, 'Charles Rennie Mackintosh: Architectural Drawings', University of Glasgow:unpublished PhD thesis, 1982, pp. 7–14, and Mackintosh's entry in the online Dictionary of Scottish Architects, and from these sources a very small number of further projects were added.

A few more JHKM projects came to light when searching the various databases and indexes of Dean of Guild plans in Glasgow City Archives, and these were also added to the core list. They include schemes for a musicians' gallery at the Grand Hotel, a studio for Archibald Kay at 66 Berkeley Street and a drill hall for St George's Road School. It is not clear why these projects do not feature in the job books. In some cases, modest payments from the clients are recorded in JHKM's cash book, which may indicate that the office's involvement was limited to supplying drawings. In one case it seems to have done no more than make a survey of an existing building (Simpson's furniture warehouse at 102–8 London Road).

A small number of projects were added later during the course of the research. These included architectural competition entries known from payments recorded in the cash book, or from press reports; designs for unidentified buildings known from surviving sketches; designs and building surveys recorded in sketchbooks; and jobs mentioned in letters.

Some jobs which were originally grouped together as single projects (for example three alternative designs for Glasgow Art Galleries; three exhibition stands for Glasgow International Exhibition 1901) were subsequently split into separate projects.

The Projects table

The core list forms the table called 'Projects' in the MARC database. Further fields were added to it (for instance Dean of Guild plan numbers) that did not derive from the job books, but the 'pure' data from the job books was preserved in a separate table called 'Job Books'.

Numbering

Every project was given a unique identification number prefaced with the letter S – an S number. The S numbers are used to link all information relating to a particular project – architectural drawings, archival sources, historic photographs, etc. At the end of the research project, each project was given a chronological catalogue number for display on the website – an M number – but the S numbers remain the means by which information in the various database tables is linked.

Research grading of projects

In order to plan subsequent research, the projects were graded according to their likely or presumed significance, so that the more important ones could be prioritised. Using the job books, the cost of each project was roughly calculated and entered into the Projects table, rounded up to the nearest £50. Cost alone is not a sure guide to the significance of a project – the important alterations to the Lady Artists' Club, for example, cost only £150 – so an attempt was made to characterise the work involved in each project, based on the payments recorded in the job books (for example, were masons employed, or only painters?). This data was entered into the Job Book Notes field of the Projects table. Using this information, each project was given a research grade on a scale of 1 to 4, as follows:

Research grade 1.

All the architectural works accepted by Crawford as being by Mackintosh, plus all those for which the relevant job-book entries were wholly or partly written in his hand, or where his name was mentioned.

Research grade 2.

Particularly large or important projects by JHKM, some possibly showing Mackintosh's involvement.

Research grade 3.

Less important works mentioned in the job books, generally worth under £2000.

Research grade 4.

Projects costing less than £250, or for which no cost was recorded, unless there was a particular reason to believe they might be of aesthetic importance; non-architectural works (projects not involving mason-work; painted decoration; movable furniture); projects without significant aesthetic or architectural content (e.g. drains).

Other tables in the Database

The Database contains the following tables in addition to the Projects table:

Names

This records information about individuals and groups associated with each project (particularly clients, and contractors or suppliers), or with Mackintosh's career more generally (such as colleagues, professional associates and commentators). Contractors are the most numerous group. It was therefore decided, for reasons of time, to include only successful contractors and suppliers – i.e. those recorded in the job books as having received payment. Each record is given an abbreviated reference in the 'name_key' field, which can be used as an entity reference in XML documents.

Bibliography

This records information about publications: author/editor, year of publication, title and other standard details. Each record was given an abbreviated reference in the 'bib_id' field, which could be used as an entity reference in XML documents.

Exhibitions

This records details of exhibitions in which Mackintosh's work was shown. Each record was given an abbreviated reference in the 'exhib_id' field, which could be used as an entity reference in XML documents.

Drawings

This is a comprehensive catalogue of drawings associated with Mackintosh's architectural projects and those of the firm during the Mackintosh years. For drawings in The Hunterian's collection, catalogue information was imported from INCA (The Hunterian's collection management system), then checked against the drawing, and edited and expanded to conform with MARC practice (see Appendix 1 in the Research section). For non-Hunterian drawings, catalogue information was gathered from examining the drawings themselves. This information was recorded on a pro-forma and subsequently entered into the table. Each drawing was given a filename comprising the prefix d, followed by the relevant project 'S' number, followed by an underscore, followed by the a three-digit running number, and this filename was entered into the table: e.g. d041_012.

Images

This records information about images which appear as illustrations on the website. Each image was given a unique filename. The filename consists of a prefix ('a' for archival material; 'c' for 'current' photographs, primarily those taken specially for the MARC project; 'g' for glossary illustrations; 'ph' for historic photographs) followed by the 'S' number for the project to which it relates, followed by an underscore, followed by a three-digit running number. The filename for portraits consists of a prefix ('por'), followed by an underscore, followed by the same abbreviation of the person's name used for the 'name key' in the names table. The images table includes fields for captions and for copyright information and credit lines. The images table also serves to catalogue archival material and historic photographs and thus includes fields such as marks, source and those relating to transcriptions.

Job-book images

This records information about photographs of job-book pages for use on the website. Each photograph shows a double-page spread from the job books and has a filename consisting of the prefix 'j', followed by the five-digit GLAHA number of the job book, followed by an underscore, followed by the number of the left-hand page in three-digit form (e.g. j53059_121; j53062_053; j53063_003).

The Website     ^

Design

The guiding principles for the website were that it should be academically rigorous; accessible to a wide audience; richly illustrated; intuitive and easily searchable. It was equally vital that the visual appearance of the site was attractive, appropriate to its content, and indicative of its range. An external agency, Treesholm Studio, was commissioned in 2010 to work with the team in developing a visual framework for the site content.

The database and the website were built by Systems Developer Graeme Cannon, of the University of Glasgow's Humanities Advanced Technology Information Institute (HATII). This work was based on extensive discussions with the project team; discussions continued throughout the lifetime of the project with ongoing updates and refinements. Catalogue data delivered via the website is derived from two sources: 1) project metadata developed in a relational database management system, and 2) XML for the catalogue entries, biographies and glossary. Project metadata was developed using an MS Access database and exported to the MySQL database management system using ODBC for delivery via the website. XML data was encoded by project staff using validating XML editing applications (XMetal, oXygen). XML files were validated against schemas specifically developed for the project. The website delivers valid XHTML pages styled using CSS2. The PHP scripting language is used to deliver metadata and XML content dynamically. XML content is converted to XHTML dynamically using XSLT and the LIBXML2 library. The Google Maps API version 3 is used to link project data with map locations. Some features of the website use JQuery (the 'CloudZoom' image viewer and custom tool-tips), but alternative mechanisms are provided where JavaScript is not available. The website has been developed following WAI guidelines on accessibility.

Content

Introductory Pages

The website has a number of introductory pages. In addition to an introduction to the project, these include Mackintosh (an essay on his architectural career), Contact Us, Links and Acknowledgements; and supporting pages for The Catalogue: Essays, Timeline, Map, Glossary and Bibliography.

Essays

These were devised to draw together the learnings of the project and to provide contextual information: The Architectural Career of C. R. Mackintosh; Architectural Drawings; Building Process and Records; Clients; Contractors and Suppliers; Lifetime Critical Reception; Mackintosh and Materials; The Office 1888–1913; About the Project.

Timeline

Dates

Start and finish dates for projects were allocated in year quarters based on the earliest and last documented dates for practical work on a project, broadly from instruction/design to contractor completion. The dates could in many cases only be indicative as the available information was incomplete; it comprised mainly submissions to the Dean of Guild, payments by the office, and final inspections. Work would certainly have started in the office before Dean of Guild approval was secured, and work on site may well have finished before final payments were processed or final inspection undertaken. Some interpretation was therefore necessary. Users are directed to the more detailed information contained within the chronology and job book entries for each project.

Interpolation

Where the date of actions such as Dean of Guild drawings or approvals, or final payments or inspections belonged to the first week of a new quarter, it was assumed that work had been underway or concluded in the previous quarter. Where no information was available, it was assumed that memorials were worked on over a six-month period following date of death.

Exclusions

Where information was insufficient to provide meaningful entries, these projects were excluded from the main timeline but are included in the life events.

These comprise all student designs and a small group of speculative and unbuilt projects:

M001 Student design for a town house 1887–8
M027 Student design for a public hall 1889–90
M029 Student design for a science and art museum 1890
M119 Design for an unidentified church c. 1895
M120 Design for an unidentified house c. 1895
M165 Alterations to Skelmorlie Bank [1898]
M166 Alterations to Westbourne Free Church [1898]
M178 Design for a country mansion c. 1899–1900
M192 Design for an unidentified church c. 1900–2
M279 Student design for a mountain chapel 1888
M282 Repairs to Kelvinside Academy c. 1907
M305 Designs for a golf club house c. 1910
M346 Design for alterations to a garage in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London
M348 Survey of Tite Street
MX.07 Unidentified house in Cologne n.d.

Glossary

A project-specific glossary, with selected illustrations, was prepared to explain architectural terms used in the project entries and essays.

The Catalogue

The heart of the site is The Catalogue. The Catalogue is accessed via the Project Index, which can be viewed either in a simple text version, or in a pictorial version illustrated with small images. The Index can be sorted alphabetically, chronologically or by cost. It leads to a catalogue entry for each project, divided into a number of separate tabs – see below.

Headline Information

Headline information about the project – M number, name, address, dates, client name and an icon image – is drawn from the database and displayed constantly, whichever of the tabs is being viewed.

Dating

All of the projects are dated and the default sort order is chronological. Dating was crucial for the final 'M' numbering of the projects and populating of the timeline. As noted in the Timeline section above, start and finish dates for projects were allocated in year quarters based on the earliest and last documented dates for practical work on a project, broadly from instruction/design to contractor completion, but the dates in many cases could only be indicative. Users will however be able to cross-refer to the more detailed information contained within an individual project's chronology and job-book entries.

Authorship

A complex issue was whether to categorise the projects according to the level of Mackintosh's involvement as established by the research project. It was concluded that this was an important tool in understanding, evaluating and searching the content of the site. Four categories of authorship were established (distinct from the initial research grading used for the creation of the core list):

Category 1. Projects identified as designed by Mackintosh by reliable sources during his lifetime; or so distinctive in style that their authorship seems beyond doubt.
Category 2. Projects for which there is stylistic or documentary evidence that suggests Mackintosh designed a specific but relatively minor part.
Category 3. Projects for which there is evidence of Mackintosh's involvement but not in a design capacity, e.g. the presence of annotations in his handwriting on drawings.
Category 4. Projects by the office dating from 1889–1913, for which there is no documentary or stylistic evidence of Mackintosh's involvement. Also projects which have been wrongly ascribed to Mackintosh in the past.

Authorship categories were given on the basis of documentary and stylistic evidence, with reference to other sources including Mackintosh's 1906 application for Fellowship of the RIBA; entries on Honeyman, Keppie and Mackintosh in Who's Who in Glasgow, 1909; the recollections of W. S. Moyes; and the lists compiled by Ronald Harrison.

Catalogue entries

Each catalogue entry has been largely written in the form of an XML document held on a dedicated network drive. These documents are divided into sections which correspond to the tabs that users see when viewing the catalogue entry on the website: Introduction, Chronology, Description, Drawings, People, Documents, Job Books, Images and Bibliography.

Introduction

This contains a very brief description of the project, plus basic information such as alternative names and addresses, cost, current use, grid reference, Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland site number, Historic Scotland HB number and listed status. In cases where a building/project has more than one name, a simple list of all the alternative names is given in the Introduction. This includes the name by which the building is currently (2014) known, if this is not the same as the chosen project name (e.g. 'Oran Mor' will be listed as an alternative name to 'Alterations to Kelvinside U. F. Church'). In particularly complicated cases (e.g. Mossyde), the opening paragraph of the Description explains the various name changes, with footnotes giving dates and sources.

Chronology

This sets out key dates in the conception, planning, construction and subsequent life of the building.

Description

This is the heart of the catalogue entry. Descriptions vary in length and content from project to project, but cover at least some of the following areas: the project's physical form and appearance; the process of commissioning/design/construction (fleshing out the bare bones of the Chronology); the significance of the project in Mackintosh's career; contemporary critical responses; and questions of authorship. Illustrations are incorporated in the text.

Drawings

The content of the Drawings tab comes from the drawings table in the database and provides information on title, dimensions, scale, date, medium, inscriptions, collection and collection number, together with a zoomable image. Images of drawings, along with all other images displayed on the site, are held on a network drive. Each has a unique filename, corresponding to the filename entered into the Drawings table in the database (see above). It had been hoped to attribute drawings to different hands within the office but it became clear that the generation of the drawings had been a more complex process. Input from several hands – draughtsman; annotator; signatory; Dean of Guild clerk and master of works – became apparent. Different hands may have had responsibility for different components, e.g. headings; names of owners of properties; plans; elevations. A partner or draughtsman, for example, may have been responsible for a 'master drawing', which was copied and then coloured, titled, annotated and signed by different hands. It has been possible to identify securely only a relatively small number of drawings as being by Mackintosh. In rare cases it has been possible to identify the work of other hands, for example where a drawing is signed.

People

Individuals and bodies associated with the commissioning and carrying out of a project (client, contractors, etc.) are listed in the form of entities in the XML document. On the website, these entities provide links to further XML documents containing biographical information, and to data from the Names table in the Database. It was initially intended to include the biographical information in the Database, but this would have made it difficult to include other features like footnotes, links, images and rich text. It was therefore decided to make an individual XML document for each biography. Time constraints did not allow the provision of biographies for all of the names that emerged during the research. It was agreed to provide biographies for all significant non-institutional clients, and for those contractors and suppliers who worked on two or more projects.

Job Book

This section of the XML document contains data about tendering and payments extracted from the relevant job-book entries. On the website, the data is displayed in tabular form, alongside zoomable photographs of the relevant job-book pages.

Archives

This tab includes relevant archival documents. These are listed by filename in the XML document and displayed as images on the website.

Images

This section brings together all images used in the Description, and others that may be of interest to users. Images are listed by file-name in the XML document. They display on the website as thumbnails, which can be opened in a new window.

Bibliography

This section of the XML document is divided into 'Published' and 'Unpublished' works. 'Published' works are subdivided into 'Books' and 'Journals'. To be included, a work should be essential for the reader who wishes to gain a full picture of the building/project in question. The Bibliography does not include sources which provide documentary evidence for single facts (e.g. a letter which provides an important date); these are cited in footnotes at the relevant point in the catalogue entry.

Photography

The site contains over 3000 images. These include drawings; pages from the office record books (job books, visit book and cash book); and images of buildings. In addition, the researchers took many images as part of their research work. These are stored in uncompressed TIFF and DNG format on the University of Glasgow's Active Directory network in an area dedicated to the project. In a few cases external photographers were commissioned to photograph drawings contained in collections outside Glasgow.

Drawings and Archives

Important contributions were made by the Mitchell Library, Glasgow and the University of Glasgow, Photographic Unit. The Mitchell Library conserved and photographed over 500 drawings; this work was supported with funding from The Pilgrim Trust. The University of Glasgow photographed all of the pages from the four relevant office job books, the visit book and the cash book. These initiatives have made this material available world-wide for the first time. Other images were provided by public institutions – see Acknowledgements. John McPake was commissioned to photograph drawings owned by Biggar Museums Trust, East Dunbartonshire Leisure and Culture Trust, Perth and Kinross Council, Stirling Council, University of Strathclyde Archives and Special Collections, and a private collection. John Glynn photographed drawings owned by Hill House Antiques and a private collection.

Buildings

The majority of the buildings were photographed by the researchers. Additional images were provided by Alan McAteer through Glasgow Mackintosh.

Testing

The developing site underwent rigorous testing. Six testing sessions were held in June 2011, March 2012 and October 2012: five were lab-based and the last comprised an independent review by an invited group of 23 international scholars. These sessions provided invaluable feedback. Participants included academics; students; heritage workers; archivists; general public; school teachers; and museum and gallery professionals.

Research     ^

Prioritisation

With the agreement of the Steering Group, it was decided to prioritise category 1 and 2 projects for detailed research. Category 3 and 4 projects were generally dealt with in a more summary way.

All category 1 and 2 projects have full catalogue entries. These projects range from relatively minor, unbuilt designs to major buildings. They include complex projects such as the Glasgow Herald building, Martyrs Public School, the Glasgow School of Art, Queen's Cross Church, the Daily Record building, Ingram Street Tea Rooms, Windyhill, House for an Art Lover, Liverpool Cathedral, The Hill House, Willow Tea Rooms, Scotland Street Public School, and the Chelsea studios.

Category 3 and 4 projects generally have only minimal catalogue entries, but in all cases the relevant job-book data is available on the website.

Timetable

After a two-month scoping period (May–June 2010), a timetable for research and writing was devised. The remaining 34 months of the researchers' contracts were broken down into five six-month blocks (leaving four months at the end for writing thematic essays and general editing). The 16 exceptionally complex projects were to be spread evenly over the whole 30-month research period. Projects to be dealt with in each six-month block were also selected to take account of geographic clustering: it made sense to deal with proximate groups of buildings (in Kilmacolm and Skelmorlie, for instance) at the same time, both to minimise travel and to get a better understanding of local context. Weather and available daylight were also factors: projects at a distance from Glasgow were best dealt with in the spring and summer; those in the city during autumn and winter.

Division of work

Initially it was proposed that work be divided so that archival research was carried out by one researcher and writing by the other. This might have led to efficiencies in the use of research time, but it was decided that full understanding of a project depended on the writer also undertaking the research.

Volunteers

Two volunteers, Elena Trimarchi and Jennie Wills, made a major contribution to the project by transcribing job-book entries for category 3 and 4 projects.

In the early stages, volunteers assisted the researchers by undertaking biographical research into clients and contractors. A pro-forma for recording information from Post Office directories and other sources was designed by David Stark (see Appendix 4). Later it was decided to employ a freelance researcher, Morag Cross, to research and write selected biographies.

Research notes

Research notes and research material for many projects together with digital photographs taken during site visits and study photographs taken on visits to drawings collections and archives, have been archived into the project files at The Hunterian.

Method

The method of research varied from project to project, but generally followed this pattern:

  1. Extraction of job-book data – the best place to start, because the job books usually gave core facts (dates, client name and address, costs) as well as explaining the nature and extent of the job
  2. Location and cataloguing of drawings
  3. Site visit(s)
  4. Consultation of published and unpublished sources
  5. Writing up

Copy editing

After the first six-month research period, the completed catalogue entries were copy edited by Perilla Kinchin. At the end of the research phase, Ms Kinchin copy edited all project entries, biographies and essays.

Editorial Board

After the first six-month research period an Editorial Board was set up to review the content, writing style and presentation of the catalogue entries, project by project. Roger Billcliffe, Simon Green (RCAHMS) and Ranald McInnes (Historic Scotland) agreed to serve on the board, together with David Stark from February 2013.

Job Books

The JHKM job books are the main source of information: four job books (GLAHA 53059, 53061–53063), cover the years 1888 to 1913 when Mackintosh worked for the firm, with additional information contained in the visit book (GLAHA 53060) and cash book (GLAHA 53079). An important early step was to establish a coherent and structured format for organising the data the job books contained as there were many inconsistencies in the way information was recorded. The following notes summarise how this material was managed.

Job-book entries

When the firm began work on a project, a new entry was begun in the current job book. For a small project, the entry might occupy only part of a double-page spread; for larger projects, it might extend over several double pages. When deciding where to begin a new entry, the person filling in the book had to guess how many pages the preceding entry would require for completion. Sometimes insufficient space was set aside, and for this reason some entries break off abruptly and resume on a later page. When this happens, there is generally a note to say so (e.g. 'Continued on p. 123').

Generally speaking, the left-hand pages record tenders and the right-hand pages record payments. On the left-hand page (or pages), the name of the project and client is written at the top of each entry. Below are the names of contractors who submitted competitive tenders for work on the project. These are generally grouped together according to their trade, identified by a sub-heading ('Mason', 'Joiner', 'Slater', etc.). To the left of the names there is often information about the date of the tenders: there might be a single date at the top, which refers to all the tenders on that page; or there might be individual dates next to each trade, or each contractor. In many cases, only the successful contractor's tender is dated. In the columns to the right of each contractor's name is the value of his tender in pounds, shillings and pence. In the case of the successful contractor, the value of the tender is usually repeated in the extreme right-hand column.

Sometimes 'returned' or 'returned with thanks' is written beside a contractor's name, and no value is recorded. It seems that potential contractors were sent details of the work required. Having considered the job, some decided not to submit a tender and instead 'returned' the details.

On the right-hand page (or pages) of each entry, the name of the measurer (quantity surveyor) is usually recorded at the top. Below this, payments to contractors and suppliers are recorded. Usually, these follow more or less the same order as the tenders on the left-hand pages, but sometimes the order becomes confused. As with the tenders, dates are recorded on the left of the payee's name, with the sum (or sums) paid on the right. Payments to contractors were often made in a number of instalments, which are generally individually dated, and sometimes marked 'first payment', 'final payment', etc. The measurer was paid a fee on the completion of each contractor's work. Half this fee was paid by the architects and half by the contractor, and the 'half measurer's fee' payments of the contractor are regularly recorded in the job books along with the contactor's own final payment. As well as payments to contractors who submitted successful tenders, the right-hand pages also record payments to suppliers of various fixtures and fittings (fireplaces, furniture, etc.) who did not submit tenders, and to providers of other services (e.g. 'inspector', 'clerk of works', etc.) The measurer's fees are sometimes recorded here, at the very end of the entry. Very occasionally the architect's own fees are also recorded here, and an overall sum for the cost of the entire project is given.

Transfer of job-book data into XML

The XML documents for projects entered in the job books contain a dedicated section for the data extracted from the job books. The aim was not to make a literal, word-for-word transcription of the job book into XML, nor to replicate the layout of the handwritten page, but to extract the most important information and fit it into a standardised XML framework.

Individual sums paid to a contractor were not recorded in their entirety, only the dates of first and last payments and the total. Crossings-out, variant spellings etc. were not recorded unless they appeared to be particularly significant. The user can consult the zoomable images of the pages to access all of the primary data.

For the purposes of presenting the information in a coherent, standardised way, the order in which it appeared in the books could not be preserved. In the Tenders section, contractors were recorded in the order in which they are listed in the book, but in the Payments section a sequence was consistently followed of Contractors, followed by Suppliers, followed by Measurer’s fees, even if these appeared in a different order in the book. The Measurer’s name is recorded at the beginning of the Tenders section, even if it only appeared in the job-book entry at the very end of the Payments section. The relative positions of all these elements are determined by the DTD (Document Type Definition) that is referenced by all the XML documents. Important information from the job books that did not fit into our standard template was recorded in a <note> element, defined in the DTD.

The job-book data is structured as follows:

Job-book number, and the number of each page on which any part of the entry appears
Phase name (this applies only to multi-phase projects, where each phase has its own name)
Client's name
Measurer's name and address
Tenders (names of trades; contractors' names; dates of tenders; values of tenders; whether accepted or not)
Payments to contractors (names of trades; contractors' names; dates of payments; total sum paid)
Payments to suppliers (name of supplier; service supplied; date of payment; sum paid)
Measurer's fees

Cash book

The cash book (The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 53079) records both the firm's income (on the left side of each double page), which included fees paid by clients, and the outgoings (on the right), including staff salaries and wages, and numerous annual, monthly and other expenses. A working list of the content of the cash book entries between 1889 and 1913 was developed for research purposes. It was decided that this information should be made available on the website. An index was developed which lists proper names related to projects and the running of the office, and other names that appear more than twice. In addition there are four headings: Competitions; Loans; Perspectives; and Photography. Entries for the three lead staff were not individually cited as these appear throughout the book – Honeyman until 1905 and Mackintosh and Keppie throughout the period under review.

Other sources consulted

In addition to the office record books, research for each project made use of the following sources:

Unpublished

Hunterian Art Gallery files: The Gallery has maintained files on a number of Mackintosh's architectural projects over the years, containing photographs, correspondence with owners, etc. The contents of these were transferred into the project files set up by MARC.
Thesis: Hiroaki Kimura, 'Charles Rennie Mackintosh: Architectural Drawings', unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, 1982was the best available source of information about Mackintosh's architectural drawings. It includes photographs of a number of drawings which since 1982 have been lost or removed from the collections where the author saw them.
Glasgow database: This database, available in the Glasgow Room of the Mitchell Library, is a wide-ranging index of the Library's local history holdings.
Dean of Guild Court records: The Dean of Guild Court was the local planning authority in Scottish burghs during the period of Mackintosh's career (see Iain M. Gray, 'A History of the Dean of Guild Court and the nature of its records', in R. M. Bailey, Scottish Architects' Papers: a Source Book, Edinburgh: Rutland Press, 1996).
Drawings: Drawings submitted for the approval of the Glasgow Dean of Guild Court (and other burghs subsequently absorbed into the city) are held by Glasgow City Archives in the Mitchell Library. Four separate databases and a card index cover different parts of the collection, but there is no single, comprehensive index. The various indexes allow searches by address, petitioner and architect, but not all these options are available in all the indexes. In 2010, a search of the indexes was made for MARC. All drawings indexed as being by John Honeyman & Keppie or Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh were identified, and were noted in the Projects table in the field called 'Dean_of_Guild'. Subsequent searches by address, in relation to specific projects, brought further drawings to light.
Other Dean of Guild records: Glasgow City Archives has other useful records of the Dean of Guild Court, listed under D-OPW. The following have been important sources for MARC:
D-OPW 18 Dean of Guild Court, Master of Works List of Cases: 60 volumes, 1863–1972. Typed lists, bound into volumes, giving the date of each petition, petitioner's name, purpose and notes, with annotations. The annotations (e.g. 'Grant', 'Continue') seem to record the Master of Works' opinion of the plans submitted, perhaps as a recommendation to the Dean of Guild Court.
D-OPW 19 Dean of Guild Court proceedings: 1862–1975. The Mackintosh period is covered in 15 volumes, from volume 10 (8 March 1883–17 March 1887) to volume 25 (12 June 1913–29 April 1915). Handwritten, giving situation (i.e. location of proposed work), valuation, name and petition, date granted, 'street allowed' (this apparently refers to temporary street closure during construction) and notes (including cubic measurement and architect's name).
D-OPW 25 Dean of Guild Court Reports on Buildings: These volumes are extremely clearly written and contain a very useful record of on-site inspections carried out during construction. For the purpose of these inspections the city was divided into districts ('Central', 'North', etc.; a map in the Calendar shows the district boundaries). There is a separate sequence of volumes for each district. There may be gaps in some of the sequences. The inspector usually recorded when the work was finished, which can probably be regarded as a completion date, followed by a final signing-off date which was often several months later.
Planning records beyond Glasgow: Dean of Guild records for other burghs were consulted (Barrhead, Brechin, Govan, Helensburgh, Hillhead, Kirkintilloch, Partick and Perth), as well as equivalent records for counties. County records proved more difficult to locate.

Published

A fuller list of publications consulted is included in the Bibliography section of the database. The relevant volumes in the Buildings of Scotland series and the Newsletters and Journals of the Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society were of particular importance.

Periodicals

The following periodicals were searched for references to Mackintosh in relation to the individual projects:

Academy Architecture
Architectural Review
British Architect searchable via the British Periodicals database: www.bp.chadwyck.co.uk/journals . This is particularly useful for the Mackintosh period. Published in Manchester, it does not have the metropolitan bias of the London-based journals. JHKM were subscribers, and the journal occasionally published drawings and correspondence from Mackintosh.
Builder, the most comprehensive periodical for the period. Searchable via its annual or six-monthly classified index.

A selection of German language periodicals was searched including:

Consulted online:

Dekorative Kunst (Die Kunst)
Moderne Bauformen (both available at www.designinform.co.uk/research2.htm)
Der Architekt
Die allgemeine Bauzeitung
Neue Freie Presse
Neues Wiener Tagblatt
Wiener Abendpost
Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung
Wiener Rundschau (all available at www.anno.onb.ac.at/)
Lexicon of Viennese Architects, 1880–1945 (available at www.architektenlexikon.at/)

Searched online:

Berliner Architektenwelt (available online via the website of the Zentral- und Landesbibliothek, Berlin ->Buecher und Medien / Books & Media->Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB) / Electronic Journals Library->A–Z list)
Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration
Innendekoration
Kunst für Alle
Kunstgewerbeblatt
Kunst und Handwerk
Kunst und Künstler
Ver Sacrum (all available at www.artjournals.uni-hd.de [permalink])

Not yet available online; consulted in Vienna:

Das Interieur
Innenkunst
Kunst und Kunsthandwerk

Archives, libraries and public collections:

Angus Council Archive
Archiv der Secession, Vienna
Argyll & Bute Council Archives
Ayr Carnegie Library
Ayrshire Archives
A. K. Bell Library, Perth
Bedford Lemere Collection, English Heritage, Swindon
Biblioteche Civiche Torinesi
Biggar Museums Trust
Brechin Cathedral Archive
Brechin Library
British Architectural Library
British Museum
Deutsche Werkstätten Hellerau GmbH
East Dunbartonshire Council Archives and Libraries
East Renfrewshire Council Public Records and Archive
East Sussex Record Office
English Heritage
Fairfield Heritage Centre
Fergusson Gallery, Perth
Getty, Los Angeles, Nikolaus Pevsner Archive
Glasgow Art Club Archive
Glasgow Caledonian University Archive
Glasgow City Archives
Glasgow Institute of Architects Archive
The Glasgow School of Art (Library; Archives and Collections Centre)
Hauptstaatsarchiv, Dresden
Herald and Times newspaper picture desk
Inverclyde Council
Lanark Library
McLean Museum and Art Gallery, Greenock
The Metropolitan Museum, New York
Mitchell Library, Glasgow (Glasgow Room)
Museum of Modern Art, New York
National Archives of Scotland
National Library of Ireland
National Records of Scotland
National Trust for Scotland
Northamptonshire Records Office
Oxford University Archive, Bodleian Library
Paisley Library and Museum
Perth & Kinross Council Archive
Renfrewshire Council Libraries
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
Royal Institute of British Architects (Archive; Drawings Collection)
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg (University Library)
Sächsicher Hauptstaatsarchiv, Dresden
Stadtarchiv, Dresden
Stewartry Museum, Kirkcudbright
Stirling Council Archive
Strathclyde University Archives
Universität für Angewandte Kunst, Vienna (Department of Design History and Theory, and University Archives)
University of Aberdeen
University of Glasgow (Archives Services; Library: Maps Department; Special Collections)
University of St Andrews
University of Sydney, Archives and Records Management Services
University of Toronto, Archives and Records Management Services, Thomas Howarth Fonds
University of West of Scotland, Special Collections and Archives
Watt Library, Greenock
Werkbund Archiv, Museum der Dinge, Berlin
West Sussex Record Office

Websites and databases:

Ancestry.co.uk: www.ancestry.co.uk This subscription site was an efficient way to access census records and records of births, marriages and deaths and was of great value for biographical research into clients and contractors.
Bing Maps and Google Street View: Bing maps was extremely useful for zoomable aerial views, and for establishing if buildings still existed before arranging site visits. Coverage of Glasgow is much more detailed than that of rural areas.
Canmore (RCAHMS): canmore.rcahms.gov.uk/
Dictionary of Scottish Architects: www.scottisharchitects.org.uk/
Google: General internet searches using Google have proved useful, particularly for biographical research into clients and contractors.
Historic Digimap: available via Glasgow University Library website
Historic Scotland: (for listing descriptions) www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/index/heritage/historicandlistedbuildings.htm
Scotlands People: www.scotlandspeople.org.uk
Scotsman newspaper archive: via Proquest on Glasgow University Library website
Scottish Environmental Protection Agency: National Grid Reference tool: map.sepa.org.uk/ngrtool/
Scottish Post Office Directories: www.nls.uk/family-history/directories/post-office and www.digital.nls.uk/directories/
19th-Century British Library Newspapers: find.galegroup.com/bncn/ This is an extremely valuable source, particularly for accounts of new buildings published in the Glasgow Herald, which often give the names of contractors and other useful information. (The searchable website covers the years 1800–1900. For the years from 1906, there is an annual printed index available in the Mitchell Library. The years 1901–5 are covered by a much less detailed manuscript index, available on microfilm in the Mitchell Library.)

Appendices

1. Guidelines for inputting text
2. Guidelines for cataloguing architectural drawings
3. Guidelines for inputting job-book data into XML template
4. Biography pro-forma developed by David Stark
5. Guidelines for image management

Appendix 1: Guidelines for inputting text

Modern Humanities Research Association Style Guide was used as a reference point.
23 May 2010

Capitals: Use for nouns and adjectives denoting movements and periods where these are derived from proper nouns: Cartesian, Christian, Freudian. Use also for other movements where the l.c. could cause confusion, e.g. Romantic.
Currency: Words should be used to express simple sums of money occurring in prose: 'The manuscript was sold for eight shillings.' British currency pre-1971 should be written in the following form: 'The manuscript was sold for £197 12s 3d in 1892.' UK decimal currency should be expressed in pounds and pence separated by a full point: '£12.65' [no p or p.]
Dashes: Use en–dashes not hyphens in number and date ranges, e.g. pp. 121–3, 1868–72. Use en-rules –spaced– as parenthetical dashes.
Dates: 1872; 1872–4 (en dash, no spaces; single digit except 1879–81, 1912–14); c. 1872 (space between c. and date); by 1872; after 1872; 4 June 1892 (no 'th'; set out as day, month, date); YYYY–MM–DD where part of data that requires to be sorted in chronological sequence. No punctuation unless day of month is mentioned: Friday, 6 June 1884. In text, when referring to a period of time use the form 'from 1826 to 1850' not 'from 1826–50'. In references to centuries, the ordinals should be shown as numbers, e.g. 'the 16th century'; hyphenated when an adjective, e.g. 19th-century church design.
Exhibitions: Town, Venue, Exhibition Title, Year (cat.no.) Glasgow, Hunterian Art Gallery, Aspects of Scottish Art, 2010 (31). Cite multiple venues in a string divided by a semi-colon: Glasgow, Hunterian Art Gallery; Liverpool, National Museums Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery, Doves and Dreams: The Art of J. Herbert McNair and Frances Macdonald McNair, 2006–7
Full stops: A contracted form of a word that ends with the same letter as the full form, e.g. Dr, is not followed by a full stop. All abbreviations with a full stop are followed by a space e.g. p., l. c.
Measurements: In millimetres, h x w x d; single space between, i.e. 450 x 667
Numbers: Up to and including ten should be written in words, except where the context is statistical. Except for dates, see above, in expressing inclusive numbers falling within the same hundred, use minimum numbers except for teens: 13–15, 44–7, 100–22, 104–8; when four-digit numbers do not fall within the same hundred, give both figures in full: 1098–1101. Dates of lifespans in full, separated by an en dash. Numbers up to 9999 are written without a comma e.g. 2589; from 10,000 up have a comma, and so on with every 3 digits e.g. 100,000,000. In columns however to be consistent, commas should be consistently included e.g. 1,000.
Percentages: Give percentages in figures, eg 3%.
Proper names: These should generally be given 'as is', in full where known with dates as appropriate (usually on first mention in text), e.g. William Davidson (1863–1945); Catherine Cranston (1848–1933). Entities list to be created with principal known names. Name in full at beginning of text then surname, e.g. Newbery, Davidson – exceptions include Margaret Macdonald, Frances Macdonald, Miss Cranston. Full stops after initials and spaces between more than one, e.g. T. J. Honeyman.
Publications:  
Monographs: Author, Title, Place of publication: Publisher, edn, Date, p. or pp., ill.# p. X. For example: Roger Billcliffe, Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Complete Furniture, Furniture Drawings and Interior Designs, London: Ian Cameron, 4th edn, 2010, D1904.26; Alan Crawford, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, London: Thames & Hudson, 1995, p. 26, ill. p. 31 (NOTE space between p. and number).
Periodicals: Author, 'Article Title', Periodical, vol. number, Year, p. as above. For example: Charles Holme, 'Modern Design in Jewellery and Fans', Studio, 26, 1902, pp. 16–18. Note, only The Times has the definite article. If multiple entries, separate with a semi-colon. Give volume numbers in arabic numerals.
Project Specifics:  
Title: 'Alterations to' if a building or address (i.e. not 'at') or 'Alterations for' if a person's name. Do not include town if in Glasgow or if place is given in name, e.g. Brechin Town Hall.
  'Hall, St David's Church, Kirkintilloch' not 'Hall at St David's Church, Kirkintilloch'.
Address: Give full address with street number and postcode, but not county.
Introduction: Use upper case for current use and give date – to be checked and updated in 2014: Current use: School (2014).
Grade 3 and 4: Cite the evidence for concluding that a project that no longer survives was built, e.g. shown on a map; building is still standing; drawings were submitted to the Dean of Guild Court.
Measurements: Give metric alternatives for measurements in feet (except where you are quoting)
Stops in different sections: No stops in introduction section; stops at end of chronology entries; stops at end of notes; no stops at end of bibliographical entries; stops at end of picture captions.
Punctuation: Punctuation should fall before note nos. If a quote is part of a sentence, punctuation falls outside the quotation mark. If the quotation is a complete sentence itself it keeps its punctuation inside the quotation marks.
Spacing: S.W., N.E. etc (closed up and no hyphen ), W.C. and O.S. (closed up). Otherwise initials are spaced.
Wordlist art nouveau, baroque, brickwork, cartway, Celtic, chimneypiece, chimney-stack, clockface, coach house, courtyard, dripmould, ed., not (ed.), façade, filename, First World War (not W W 1), fingerplate, free-standing, furniture-maker, handmade, historicist, hopper-head, house-painter, job book (hyphenated when an adjective), Junior (capitalised), lightweight, metalworker, MP, neo-classical, online, picture-rail, roof-line, roughcast, Senior (capitalised), shopfront, showroom, sill not cill, stair-tower, strapwork, string-course, studio-house, tie-beam, under way, top light. W.C., washhouse, washroom

Appendix 2: Guidelines for cataloguing architectural drawings

Locate the drawings form on the network drive and select 'Forms' in l.h. box.

To go to your project, search either by number or by name. Click on the number or name in the entry that first comes up, click on binoculars in the tool bar, and then in the pop-up Find box enter either the number or name you are looking for, select 'Any part of field' in Match box, and click Find next.

Note: you can carry values forward from a field in the previous entry by putting the cursor in the empty box and pressing Ctrl and 2.

Drawing number: d255_001 etc
At the end of the project, the drawings will be given new numbers for the web which will enable us to ensure they are in the correct sequence. However at this stage it is helpful if they can be ordered chronologically. Where drawings are part of a set, the convention usually followed in the original numbering is to have plans: block plan, then rising from lowest to highest; elevations: north, east, south, west; sections: longitudinal, cross.
Set: a
At this stage the letter will denote that the drawing belongs to a set. The web information will express this (perhaps also with numbers to show which number it is and of how many – but this may be over-elaborate as the drawings tend to be inscribed with a set number).
Description: Perspective from the S.E. (no space in between)
Where there are multiple elements, cite these in the order given in Drawing number above, e.g. Plans, elevation and section. Give orientation where it is known and relevant, e.g. not applicable for a gravestone but relevant for a building. Give actual description even where this is contradicted by what is on the drawing, and provide explanation in the web note, e.g. Mossyde elevations are inscribed South etc. when they are in fact W. Do not use street names or front or back but give correct orientation.
Scale: 1/8 inch : 1 ft [1 : 96]
This is the default. If there is a different scale, follow this style, i.e. inch ft, with metric conversion, spaces either side of the colon.
Date: 1904
Variations include by, after, between 1902 and 1904, c. 1872; 1872–4 (en dash, no spaces; single digit except 1879–81); c. 1872 (space between c. and date); by 1872; after 1872; Unknown; 4 June 1892 (no 'th'; set out as day, month, date). No punctuation unless day of month is mentioned, e.g. Friday, 6 June 1884. Where date is inferred, put in square brackets. Do not enter 'not recorded'.
Drawn by: Charles Rennie Mackintosh and W. S. Moyes
Generally entries will require Mackintosh or Office.
Medium: Ink
Give information in sequence in which it was applied, e.g. Pencil, ink and watercolour. Do not refer to pen – ink is sufficient. Use 'wash' for applied colour. If the drawing is a reproduction, use the phrase photo-reproduction unless there is other information. Add a reference such as 'with pencil annotations' when these are clearly notations made subsequent to the drawing and which have a material impact on the design process, e.g. calculations, additional sketches. Minor additional annotations do not need to be noted unless their content is of special significance.
Support: Paper
Options include linen; tracing paper; paper; other.
Marks: s. and d. b.r.: 'W. S. Moyes'; inscr. b.l. by Mackintosh 'Scotland Street School'
Use slashes with spaces either side to show line breaks. Where there are slashes in an inscription give these but with no spaces either side e.g. '40/9384/95 / 65/332/01' Give signed (s.) and dated (d.) information first and location (t., b., l., r., c.; back), then inscribed (inscr.), then stamped. Commonly the office address is given with a date, but probably in an office hand. This should be treated as 'd. and inscr.:' etc. Where there is no date, it should be recorded as a general inscription.
Space after 'action', i.e. s. d. inscr., but no space between location abbreviations, e.g. b.r. t.l. If there are multiple entries, start on the front side at top left and proceed clockwise, finishing with the centre; then do the same for the back; finally any inscriptions on the original mount or backboard. Put text in single quotation marks preceded by a colon with a space after the colon.
In deciding whether marks are left, right, centre – think of the sheet as divided into a grid of nine squares/rectangles as a guide.
Do not say 'in ink' or 'in pencil'; ignore cover sheets unless they include a block plan; where a group of drawings is clipped together, catalogue each one separately and with a new number.
In the working notes box, note inscriptions or information from inscriptions where these identify materials/technology, e.g. Boyle's ventilators or Burdon's girders for Scotland Street, rather than repeating this with each drawing.
Dimensions: 542 x 1102
If the drawing is not fully accessible, e.g. framed in a mount or folded awkwardly, add [sight] after the dimensions. Give dimensions in mm, h x w.
Checked against original Y/N
Provenance: Only cite where the drawing was part of The Mackintosh Estate or Dean of Guild. Give location of Dean of Guild – Glasgow, Renfrew, etc. Give information about any interesting previous ownership, e.g. Alexander Koch, in the catalogue entry note.
Collection: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow
  Owner's specification must be followed.
Collection number: 41346
Collection record checked: Y/N/ NA
Source: If the drawing is only known through secondary sources, e.g. exhibition history, publication, ref. in a document, cite this here.
Working notes: Useful to consider materials and accommodation specified in the design. Groups of drawings may best be served with an overall summary which should be housed as a word document in the Project folder.
Queries: e.g. W.S. Moyes full name and dates; 1990 catalogue numbers; check Hunterian catalogue record

Appendix 3: Guidelines for inputting job-book data into XML template

Accepted tenders Record the final figure in the right-hand column. This is sometimes lower than the figure in the left-hand column, but only record the difference if there is a note in the job book saying, e.g., 'original tender reduced'. Record such variations in a footnote.
Contractor Use this element for anyone who submitted a tender. These names are almost always confined to the left-hand page, but very occasionally tendering information is recorded along with payment information on the right-hand page.
Dates Use the form 1 January 1900, without 'th', 'st' or 'rd', and with the month in full. If any individual part of the date is inferred, enclose it in square brackets. Where the date appears at the top the page and can be taken as referring to everything on that page, present the date without square brackets. Do not use ISO dates: they will be used in the non-job-book part of each catalogue entry, for dates which need to be searchable (i.e. earliest reference, earliest design date, etc.).
Money Use the form £10 10s 10d, without full stops after 's' and 'd'. If the job-book entry is a round sum of pounds, add zeros for shillings and pence (e.g. £123 0s 0d), but if it consists of shillings and pence only, do not add £0 (e.g. 12s 3d, not£0 12s 3d).
Names Expand abbreviations such as 'Jas', 'Arch.', etc., to 'James', 'Archibald', etc. In company names, always use '&' instead of 'and'.
  When the XML documents are transformed dynamically to HTML on the website, the names of contractors and clients are converted to hyperlinks that allow the user to access further biographical information. To achieve this, such names are entered as XML entities, which contain a section of XML markup capable of being converted into the correct hyperlink. A set of entity declarations for the 'Names' are generated from a table in the MARC database via an Access report. If a new entity is required, a new record is created in the Names table. Before using an entity, it is important to be sure that it refers to the right person. There is a danger of assuming that people with the same name are identical. A check is made to see if they have the same address, the same trade, or share other details in common, before using the same entity, especially for individuals with unexceptional names. To resolve doubtful readings it is often helpful to consult the relevant Post Office Directory (available online at www.nls.uk/family-history/directories/post-office).
'No data' Where information which the reader might expect to be recorded is absent from the job book, the entity 'no data in job book' is used.
Notes For editorial interventions, use the present tense: 'Total includes …'; 'Entry refers to …', etc.
Quotations Try to avoid the use of square brackets within quotations (e.g. ' "Includes plumber work 5[s] 5[d]." '). It is usually preferable to paraphrase a quotation, and so avoid the need for square brackets (e.g. ' "This includes a sum of 5s 5d for 'plumber work" ')
Square brackets Put square brackets around anything that is inferred, or the reading of which is uncertain.
Supplier Use this element for anyone who was paid for goods or services, but who did not submit a tender. This includes 'Clerk of Works' and 'Inspector', as well as suppliers of fixtures and fittings. For the 'service supplied' element, it is often useful to quote directly from the job book rather than attempting to paraphrase (e.g. 'Marble at chimney & tiles').
Trade types There are many variations in the way trades are recorded. These can denote important distinctions (e.g. 'Mason' is different from 'Mason & brickwork', and both are different from 'Digger, mason & brickwork'). Some trades are denoted by a 'job title' (e.g. 'Mason', 'Plumber'), others by the material with which the tradesman worked (e.g. 'Plaster') or which they supplied ('Cast Iron'). We should record the trade as it is described in job book. If the trade type is not mentioned on the left-hand page, but can be inferred from information of the right-hand page, include it all the same, without square brackets.

Appendix 4: Biography pro-forma developed by David Stark

Contractor Name:

                         

Sources Consulted

Source Researcher Date Comments
Glasgow Post Office Directories – see below      
Glasgow Database, Mitchell Library      
Queries Database, Mitchell Library      
Press Cuttings, Mitchell Library      
Glasgow Herald pre-1900 (searchable online)      
Glasgow Herald post-1900 (index in Mitchell Library)      
Who's Who in Glasgow 1909      
Ernest Gaskell, Lanarkshire Leaders      
Glasgow Contemporaries at the Dawn of the 20th Century      
Lists of Officers in the Trades House (Mitchell Library GB243/T-THI)      
Scottish Business Archives, University of Glasgow      
The Bailie      
Google      

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Glasgow Post Office Directories

Date Name Business Description Business Address Person Person Address
           
           
1879–80          
           
1885–86          
           
1890–91          
           
1895–96          
           
1899–00          
           
1904–05          
           
1910–11          
           
1914–15          
           
1920–21          
           

Additional Company Information

  Details Source
1    
2    
3    
4    

Additional Personal Information

Item Details Source
Name    
Date of Birth    
Date of Death    
Public or Professional Positions    
Membership of Clubs / Societies    
Religious Affiliation    
Family Connections    
Publications and Online Resources    
Other    

Appendix 5: Guidelines for image management

Images intended for use on the MARC website are deposited in the relevant folder and labelled with the filenames appropriate to the material ('a' archival material, 'c' current photographs, 'd' drawings, 'g' glossary, 'ph' historical photographs, 'por' portraits). Images for research purposes only are deposited in the relevant project folder.

Filename: a255_001; c040_001; d255_001; ph037_001; por_LightW etc
Projid: s255
This is the 'S' number given to each project during the research phase of MARC. Ultimately, new 'M' numbers will be allocated to projects for public use on the website, but filenames of images, drawings, documents, etc. will not be altered.
Title caption: Scotland Street School, N. elevation, 2010
  Scotland Street School, drill hall, 1916
  Letter from Glasgow School Board to Mackintosh, 1 November 1905
  Lithograph portrait of William Lightbody, date
This will be the display caption for the image on the website.
Alt tag: Colour photograph of Scotland Street School, N. elevation, 2010
  Black and white photograph of Scotland Street School, drill hall, 1916
  Photograph of typed letter from Glasgow School Board to Mackintosh, 1 November 1905
  Photograph of lithograph portrait of William Lightbody, date
The alt tag provides a short description of the image should the image fail to display on the website and for improved accessibility for blind and partially sighted website users.
Date of original: Exact date when photograph was taken by MARC staff
  or date of letter/other archival material
  or when historic photograph was taken
  or when portrait appeared in a publication such as the Bailie
Dates in ISO format where possible, i.e. 2011-03-03
Date image created: When the image was given a filename and added to the images table and appropriate folder
For photographs taken by MARC staff, this may be the same as 'date of original'. Dates in ISO format.
Original created by: Initials of MARC staff, full name of photographer or institution (e.g. Glasgow School Board)
Marks: For archival material and historic photographs. Some marks have been recorded, but not as fully as for architectural drawings (Appendix 1)
Collection: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow
Collection number: GLAHA 12345
Source: Full name of person or organisation providing the image or title of the publication or manuscript in which image was found (as per bibliography guidelines)
Credit line: Photograph: David Stark
  With permission of Glasgow Heritage Preservation Trust
Web note: Final note(s) to appear on website
Working notes: Might contain queries, information about work in progress or information relating to a group of images
Copyright owner: MARC, collection name or source name
Copyright notes: Progress of securing permission and ordering a copy of the image from the copyright holder/collection where held
Image requests

Images were requested from public archives and private collections using the following request template:

Mackintosh Architecture: Context, Making and Meaning is a research project based at the University of Glasgow, funded with a major research grant from the AHRC. It aims to deliver the first comprehensive analysis of the architecture of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. The research will culminate in an authoritative online database of archival material, essays and catalogue raisonnés of buildings and drawings. The site will be non-commercial and free to access and is scheduled to go live in 2014. You can see a sample at www.mackintosh-architecture.gla.ac.uk/catalogue_temp.
We would like to request a high-quality digital TIFF of the following: XX
Please can you advise what the total charge would be?
We would also like to apply for permission to reproduce the image on the website. Rights and usage metadata supplied by you will be embedded within it, as well as included on the webpage where the image occurs. As we have only a limited budget for photography fees, it would be greatly valued if you were able to waive permission fees, as this is a non-commercial, educational resource. The Bodleian Library, The Hunterian, Glasgow School of Art and Glasgow City Council Archives are a few of the many institutions who have waived permission fees.
We will fully credit your organisation alongside the relevant material, and use the image only in the agreed context, i.e. the website.

The minimum size of images requested for illustrative purposes was far smaller than architectural drawings (about 800 pixels on longer edge as opposed to 3000+ pixels), since only the latter were zoomable, but in both cases large TIFFs were generally requested for simplicity and flexibility. The record of images requested was tracked in an Excel table with three tabs (requested; in progress; received), grouped by archive. As an image order progressed, its entry was cut and pasted from tab to tab. The tab headings in the Excel tracking table were:

  • Requested by (team member's initials)
  • Archive
  • Number of images
  • Number of drawings
  • Project number
  • Details (including collection numbers)
  • Status/Notes
  • Date updated
  • Estimated Cost
  • Credit line
  • Special requirements, e.g. limit on the image dimensions to be displayed, or time limit on the permissions licence granted

Images and drawings were physically archived on CD, filed by archive, as well as saved to the digital archive.

People     ^

Project Team

Pamela Robertson, The Hunterian, Principal Investigator
Joseph Sharples, Chief Researcher
Nicky Imrie, Post Doctoral Researcher
Graeme Cannon, HATII, Systems Developer
Heather Middleton, Administrator

Steering Group

Roger Billcliffe; Ann Gow, HATII; Simon Green, RCAHMS; Ranald MacInnes, Historic Scotland; Dr Robert Proctor, Mackintosh School of Architecture (Professor David Porter up to June 2011); David Stark, Keppie

Editorial Board

Roger Billcliffe; Simon Green, RCAHMS; Ranald MacInnes, Historic Scotland; and David Stark (from February 2013)

Advisory Panel

Alan Crawford; Charles Hind, RIBA; Dr James Macaulay; Dr George Rawson; Dr Gavin Stamp; Jane Thomas, RCAHMS; Professor David Walker

External Support

Nick Anderson: image management
Morag Cross: biography research
John Curtis: photography
John Glynn: photography
Perilla Kinchin, White Cockade Publishing: copy editor
Danilo Di Mascio: Scotland Street School renderings
Alan McAteer: photography
John McPake, The Big Picture: photography
Gemma Meechan: image management
Abigail Morris: plans and axonometrics
Mandy O'Donnell, Treesholm Studio: website visual appearance
Andy Smart, A. C. Cooper (Colour) Ltd: photography

Volunteer Assistants

Lea Berninger; Elizabeth Crawford; Claire Lowney; Frances Monroe; William Robertson; David Stark; Kevin Toner; Elena Trimarchi; Frank Walker; Jennie Wills