The Office 1888–1913

Nicky Imrie

Partnerships ^

John Honeyman & Keppie

John Honeyman (1831–1914) had practised architecture in his own right for over 35 years when he took John Keppie (1862–1945) into partnership in late 1888. 1 Keppie joined him from the Glasgow firm Campbell Douglas & Sellars, where he had assisted James Sellars with the design of the Victoria Infirmary (1882), the 1888 Glasgow International Exhibition buildings, and the design for Anderson's College Medical School, awarded to Sellars's firm in August 1887. Sellars died suddenly on 9 October 1888. In the subsequent reorganisation of his firm, Campbell Douglas took another assistant, Alexander Morrison, into partnership, while Keppie departed amicably and was apparently permitted to take the contract for Anderson's College Medical School with him into the new partnership with Honeyman. 2 On 12 November 1888, the Medical School building committee recommended to its governors that the contract for its new building 'should remain in the hands of Mr Keppie through his firm of Messrs Honeyman and Keppie'. 3 Drawings for the new Medical School were submitted to Dean of Guild Court under the name of John Honeyman & Keppie on 27 November 1888. 4 An announcement of the new partnership of John Honeyman & Keppie appeared in the British Architect on 14 December 1888. 5

B/W photograph of Portrait of John Honeyman Photograph of John Keppie, 1909 B/W Photograph of Charles Rennie Mackintosh, c.1893

Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh

On 10 October 1901, a new partnership agreement, between Keppie and Mackintosh, was prepared. It is known only from a copy. 6 According to this, the partnership applied to a 10-year period beginning retrospectively on 1 January 1901, whence the firm was to be known as Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh. The contract set out the new firm's financial arrangements, record keeping, each partner's responsibilities and strict limitations on private work. The firm's capital was to be 1000, to be contributed wholly by Keppie. He was to receive 5% of each annual balance before profits were distributed among the partners. Under the terms of the contract, John Honeyman was entitled to receive a share of the firm's net profits for three years following his retirement, dated 1 January 1901. Honeyman's share was to be deducted before the remaining sum was shared between Keppie (two thirds) and Mackintosh (one third). After three years, Keppie's share was to become three fifths; Mackintosh's two fifths. Mackintosh's annual share was not to fall below 250. The contract stated that: 'The parties shall devote their whole time and attention to the business, and during the currency thereof, neither of them shall either directly or indirectly be engaged in or consulted with any other tender occupation or business, but this restriction shall not apply to pictorial work by either party, or to odd examples of decorative work done by either partner out of ordinary business hours for the purpose of exhibition at Art or other Exhibitions ...' It also stated that partners were not permitted to participate in any speculative activity: what exactly this implied is not clear. Details were also given in relation to the dissolution of the partnership. 7 A final payment to John Honeyman of 44 13s 11d was recorded in the firm's cash book on 10 November 1905. 8

Honeyman & Keppie

Mackintosh left the firm on 31 December 1913. His departure is recorded in the firm's cash book. 9 An official announcement of the dissolution of the partnership on 5 January 1914 appeared in the Edinburgh Gazette on 6 January 1914. The firm subsequently took on the name Honeyman & Keppie, with Keppie as the sole partner; John Honeyman died on 8 January 1914. The announcement stated that Mackintosh would practise on his own account from his home address, by then known as 78 Ann Street, Hillhead, Glasgow (formerly 6 Florentine Terrace). 10 Payments for 'dissolution charges' to the firm's lawyer, Maclay, Murray & Spens, and for a new brass nameplate on 23 October 1914 are recorded in the cash book on 8 June and 23 October 1914 respectively. 11

No work by Mackintosh is known from the period immediately after his departure from the firm. He and Margaret Macdonald left Glasgow by the summer of 1914, initially for a holiday in Walberswick, Suffolk, where their friends Francis H. ('Fra') Newbery and Jessie Newbery nee Rowat had a house. The holiday became a permanent departure from Glasgow. By 1915 the couple had settled in Chelsea, London where they remained for around eight years and from where Mackintosh undertook a small number of modest and largely unrealised projects.

During the first four months of 1914, Mackintosh continued to receive payments from Honeyman & Keppie amounting to almost 35 for outstanding fees and expenses. 12 On 3 April 1916, the firm was paid for work to date on Jordanhill Demonstration School. A significant portion of this fee was sent on to Mackintosh, presumably to remunerate him for earlier design work. The cash-book entry reads 'received 350, JK took for Mackintosh 250'. 13

At the beginning of 1917, John Keppie took Andrew Graham Henderson, a draughtsman with the firm since 1904, into partnership. 14 Keppie continued in practice for another two decades, before retiring in 1937. 15 The firm continues today as Keppie Design.

People ^

Draughtsmen and apprentices

When John Honeyman & Keppie was established in late 1888, Honeyman already employed Alexander McGibbon (from 1882) and James Herbert McNair (from 1888) as draughtsmen. It is thought that Charles Whitelaw and Henry Mitchell, who were employed at Campbell Douglas & Sellars, soon joined Keppie at the new firm. Mackintosh is believed to have joined the firm early in 1889 as a draughtsman/assistant, having served his apprenticeship with John Hutchison. The first payment to him appears in the firm's cash book on 27 July 1889. In his Royal Institute of British Architects fellowship application of 1906, Mackintosh recorded the start date of his career as a practising architect as 1888. 16 Wages to McGibbon (under 'McGibbon' and 'A.Mc.'), Mackintosh (under his original spelling of 'McIntosh'), McNair ('J.H.Mc.'), Whitelaw ('C.W.'), Mitchell ('M.') and one other, identified only as 'J. Mc.', are recorded in the cash book during 1889 along with several payments to 'draughtsmen'. 17

During Mackintosh's almost 25 years with the firm, a total of 26 draughtsmen and apprentices are recorded in the cash book (see Appendix). In addition to the partners, usually four or five men were employed. The longest serving draughtsmen were Andrew Graham Henderson (1882–1963) and W. S. Moyes (1879–1962) 18 Henderson joined the firm in April 1904 and, save for war service in the army, he ultimately spent his entire career there, becoming partner in the new partnership of John Keppie & Henderson from January 1917. 19 Moyes had joined the firm by March 1898 and remained until February 1907. He then emigrated to Australia, where he worked in the office of the New South Wales Government architect. 20 Later in life, Moyes corresponded with the early Mackintosh scholar Thomas Howarth. Three informative letters written in 1947 attribute particular buildings to Mackintosh and to Keppie; give details of which architects and buildings influenced Mackintosh; describe Mackintosh's sketching trips and flower drawing; and outline Mackintosh's method of drawing, from sketches through to draft scale drawings and final pen drawings. He also described Mackintosh's habit of smoking a pipe and occasionally whistling while at work in the office. Moyes explained that he had worked for 'each of the partners, and was very interested in the work of Mackintosh'. 21

B/W Photograph of Charles Whitelaw, John Honeyman and Keppie employee 1889-91

At least nine men began apprenticeships at the firm during the Mackintosh years. In their first three years they were paid only a Christmas or New Year gift, usually of 10 (summer gifts were also paid occasionally), before moving onto a monthly wage of 3 or 4. Donald M. Stoddart (1893–1900), George Andrew Paterson (1893–8), Thomas Lumsden Taylor (1898–1903), and Alexander Smellie (1906–11) completed the five-year apprenticeship under the supervision of the firm, with Stoddart staying on for an additional two years. Archibald Gilchrist Paton completed his apprenticeship in 1913 after four years with the firm. 22 As was customary during this period, the young men all took classes at the Glasgow School of Art while apprenticed to the firm; Taylor and Smellie also attended classes at the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. George Paterson followed in Mackintosh's footsteps by winning the Alexander Thomson Travelling Studentship in 1898. 23

Perspective artists

Perspective of Dunloe by Alexander McGibbon

Alexander McGibbon left John Honeyman & Keppie during 1890 to take up a teaching position at the Glasgow School of Art. 24 He was subsequently employed by the firm on a freelance basis to draw perspectives for competition entries, exhibitions and/or publication. Payments to him for most of these are recorded in the cash book between 1891 and 1910. His perspectives included Dunloe; the design for the Royal Insurance building (paid for in 1895); Brechin Cathedral (paid for in 1898); Belhaven Church(paid for in 1899); Pettigrew & Stephens (paid for in 1899); the design for the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College (paid for in 1901); Paisley Library and Museum (paid for in 1904); Walker's, probably 137–143 Sauchiehall Street (paid for in 1904); Simpson's, 309–313 Sauchiehall Street (paid for in 1905); Iona Abbey Church (paid for in 1907); and the Usher Hall competition design (paid for in 1910). 25 Only two, that for Dunloe and that for the Glasgow School of Art (half built), survive; others are known through illustrations in contemporary periodicals.

Thomas Raffles Davison, accomplished draughtsman and editor of the British Architect, prepared perspectives for the firm for publication in the journal. Payments are recorded for perspectives of Paisley Technical School (paid for in 1896) and of one of the firm's designs for the Glasgow International Exhibition 1901 buildings. 26 In addition his perspective of the Canal Boatmen's Institute was published in the British Architect in 1895.

One-off payments are noted to Alex Miller for an unidentified building in 1907 and to Edward Wylie in 1910 for a perspective for the Cardiff National Museum competition. 27

Women

The cash book records several women employed by the firm. Two were named and probably carried out administrative tasks, a Mrs McNicol (also recorded as Mrs Nicol and Mrs N., presumably all the same person) between 1889 and 1891, and 'Isabella' from 1898 to 1906. Mrs McNicol was first paid a monthly wage of 18s 8d, which later rose to 1. 28 Isabella was paid 1 throughout her employment. 29 A series of cleaners, presumably all women, were employed. They are never referred to by name, only, variously, as 'officer cleaner', 'cleaner', 'cleaner woman', charwoman' or 'woman'. The monthly wage remained at 1 from 1889 to 1917.

Staff photographs

B/W photograph of apprentices

Two photographs of staff are known. The better known shows the young Mackintosh, standing on the right; Herbert McNair, to his left; and Alexander McGibbon, seated centrally in front. The man seated on the right has been identified as both Henry Mitchell and Charles Whitelaw; the man standing on the left may be David Forbes Smith, who is thought to have worked for the firm in its first year, though his name does not appear in the cash book. Whitelaw became a member of Glasgow Art Club in 1903. His Club membership photograph confirms that he is the man seated on the right. It has been suggested that the group photograph was taken to mark McGibbon's departure from the firm in 1890. 30

Photograph of Smellie apprentices

The second photograph dates from between 1906–1 and shows six men, four of whom are wearing draughtsmen's protective coats. Two of the men have been identified: Andrew Graham Henderson, standing in the centre holding a paint box; and to his right Alexander Smellie. 31 The plaster cast on the wall behind the group has been identified as a copy of a relief of the Virgin and Child by Florentine sculptor Giovanni Bastianini, c. 1855. 32

Locations ^

Premises

John Honeyman had established his architect's practice in offices at 140 Bath Street, Glasgow, by 1875. This address was in the Blythswood district of the city centre, which was favoured by architects, measurers (quantity surveyors), tradesmen, artists, and craftsmen and women. By the 1890s, one of the other offices at 140 Bath Street was occupied by measurer W. H. Dinsmore, who worked with Honeyman's firm on a dozen projects between 1889 and 1913. 140 Bath Street was demolished in the 1960s to make way for the Sauchiehall Centre. 33

In February 1889, a few months after the establishment of John Honeyman & Keppie, which marked the arrival of several new members of staff, Honeyman submitted an application to the Glasgow Dean of Guild Court proposing a first-floor addition to 140 Bath Street. Although the premises were rented, he was evidently permitted by the landlord to extend, in order to provide the additional space required. The addition was a single room, glazed the length of its W. elevation, and it seems probable that this was intended to be a drawing office. Honeyman's application was approved on 28 February and work was signed off by the Court on 15 June 1889. 34

B/W drawing of plan; elevation; sectionColour photograph of 4 Blythswood Square

The firm remained at 140 Bath Street until 1906, when they took new offices at 4 Blythswood Square. The move appears to have taken place in May 1906: drawings for the additions and alterations to Lenzie United Free Church are all dated May 1906, but bear both the new and old addresses of the firm. A payment for 'National Telephone changing' was recorded in the cash book on 8 September 1906; another for a name plate, made by McGeoch & Co., on 19 December 1906. 35 Why the firm chose to move is not known, but the new premises may have offered additional space, even though the numbers working in the firm rarely fluctuated beyond six to eight (including partners) from its founding. Alexander Smellie was taken on as an apprentice in February 1906, bringing the total to eight. 36

The size or number of rooms occupied by the firm is not known at either address, and as the building occupied by them at 140 Bath Street does not survive, it is difficult to know whether its offices were smaller in comparison to the three-storey plus basement terraced townhouse at Blythswood Square. At Bath Street, other offices were occupied by between three and five other firms; at Blythswood Square, there were only two others, one of them the stained-glass artist and painter David GauldDavid Gauld, a friend of Mackintosh. 37

The rent at Blythswood Square was higher than at Bath Street: in 1905 the firm paid 37 10s 0d per half year compared to 47 10s 0d in 1907. 38

The firm remained at Blythswood Square for five years. In July or August 1911, they moved a short distance E., to 257 West George Street. The firm's cash book records the event: a payment of 2 was made on 28 July 1911 for 'Nat. Telephone shifting to new offices'. 39 Rent at the new premises was considerably less, 27 10s 0d per half year and cost saving may have been a reason for moving. 40 In 1911, the firm's income was only around 40% of what it had been in 1906. 41 Only one of the office premises is still extant, 4 Blythswood Square.

Office furniture

The firm appears to have spent modest sums on improving its office furniture and fittings. A small payment for 'office fittings' is recorded in the cash book in June 1899. In April 1904, 9 9s 0d was paid for an 'office stove', and in December of the same year, 10 was recorded against 'office furniture' for chairs made by Alex Martin. In February 1906, furniture maker Francis Smith was paid 3 for a 'filing cabinet', and in June 1907, he was paid 1 10s 0d for a 'letter file'. 42 None of these items survives. As both Alex Martin and Francis Smith worked exclusively on Mackintosh projects when working for the firm, it is tempting to believe that these items of furniture were designed by Mackintosh.

Resources ^

Periodicals and books>

JHKM maintained an office library. This would have served operational, training and promotional roles. For example, periodicals enabled staff to keep up to date with national and international work, professional developments, and opinion; were an important resource for the training of apprentices; and, where the practice's own work was featured, would have been a useful tool in securing commissions.

Subscriptions to several architectural periodicals and purchases from different publishers are recorded in the cash book. The most frequently recorded payments throughout the Mackintosh years were for the weekly British Architect, in which the firm's work most often appeared. Also mentioned at various times and frequency are Academy Architecture and Architectural Review, the Builder, Building News, and, in 1912 and 1914, Country Life. The office does not appear to have subscribed to decorative arts periodicals such as the Studio or the German-language titles in which Mackintosh's and other Glasgow Style work appeared between around 1897 and 1905.

New books were acquired on several occasions: from E. H. Selby, the Architectural Association Sketchbook in 1896 and 1897; from B. T. Batsford, books including a title by John Belcher & Mervyn Macartney in 1898, most probably their Later Renaissance Architecture in England; and from Ernst Wasmuth in Berlin (among them, in 1901, a purchase which may have been Hermann Muthesius's Die Englische Baukunst der Gegenwart in which the Glasgow Herald building featured). 43 Other purchases recorded in the cash book included survey maps from Glasgow booksellers John Smith & Son; 'portfolios' and books (titles not recorded) from Hopkins (relatives of Keppie); and Murray's railway timetables. 44

The potential of the office library to assist in securing new clients is well illustrated by the case of F. J. Shand, who corresponded with Mackintosh in 1905 about a possible commission. On 13 September 1905, Mackintosh wrote: 'I am sorry that the book on Sussex Cottages has been lent from our office but I have written for it and I should have it by Friday. I have pleasure in sending you 2 plans and six photographs of "The Hill House" at Helensburgh and a copy of Dekorative Kunst showing some views of "Windyhill" Kilmacolm.' 45

The book on Sussex cottages may have been E. Guy Dawber, Old Cottages and Farmhouses in Kent and Sussex, London: B. T. Batsford, 1900. Shand replied the following day expressing a preference for a more traditional style. In his response Mackintosh advised that 'we have many books here illustrating old English work and if these would be of some service to you I should be glad to show or lend them to you.' 46 Shand went on to commission the Tudor-style Auchinibert.

The potential to disseminate the firm's work offered by architectural periodicals was highlighted by Mackintosh in a letter to his friend Hermann Muthesius. In May 1903, he reported that a Countess Schwerin in Prussian Silesia had 'written to Honeyman saying how much she admired a house of his she saw in Academy Architecture 1900 and asking him to send the plans'. Redlands at Bridge of Weir was the only house by the firm to appear in Academy Architecture that year. It is not known whether Honeyman sent plans to the Countess. 47

Photography

Photographs were one of the most important means of disseminating the work of the firm and Mackintosh's private work, and today they are a crucial resource for our understanding of that work.

Numerous payments for photography are recorded in the cash book. The firm employed most regularly was Glasgow photographers, T. & R. Annan & Sons, for whom JHKM remodelled premises at 518 Sauchiehall Street. Photographs of the Dutch Kitchen were published in the Studio in October 1906. 48 Glasgow lithographers, engravers and photographers Maclure, Macdonald & Co. provided photographs of the Liverpool Cathedral drawings, and additional payments for unknown photographic work are recorded to Glasgow photographers William Ralston in 1908 and William Fullerton in 1914. 49 Rae Ltd, for whom Mackintosh designed a stand at the 1901 Glasgow International Exhibition, were paid on three occasions between 1908 and 1910 for 'Cranston photos'. 50 Although these photographs are not known, it seems likely that the Cranston premises in question were Miss Cranston's newly completed interiors at her Lunch and Tea Rooms in Ingram Street. Leading London-based photographer Bedford Lemere & Co. was paid five times between 1905 and 1910 for photographing The Hill House, the interiors at Hous'hill, the Glasgow School of Art, and the gesso panels for the Waerndorfer Music Salon. 51 Their photographs of The Hill House illustrated Fernando Agnoletti's long article in Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration in March 1905. 52 It was probably Bedford Lemere's photographs of The Hill House which appeared in the Studio Year-book of Decorative Art, 1907 and in Charles Marriot's Modern English Architecture of 1924. 53

The firm submitted photographs of their work to exhibitions. For example, Bedford Lemere's photographs of The Hill House were exhibited at the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts in 1905, the Royal Scottish Academy in 1906, and at the Pittsburgh Architectural Club in 1907.

Annan's 'Iona photos' may have been taken for a slide lecture on 'The Shrine of St Columba at Iona', given by Honeyman to the Edinburgh District of the Scottish Ecclesiological Society in November 1905. 54

The supply of photographs for inclusion in publications was a regular topic in Mackintosh's correspondence with Hermann Muthesius, who did a great deal to promote Mackintosh's work in German-speaking Europe. Mackintosh supplied Muthesius with photographs of his own and the firm's work for Muthesius's books. Photographs of the Glasgow Herald building taken by a local photographer recommended to Muthesius by Mackintosh appeared in Die Englische Baukunst der Gegenwart (1900). Writing to Muthesius in 1898 about the publication of these photographs, Mackintosh despondently reminded his friend that, 'Although the building in Mitchell Street here was designed by me the Architects are or were Messrs Honeyman & Keppie – who employ me as assistant. So if you reproduce any photographs of the building you must give the architects' name – not mine.' 55 A few years later, Muthesius wished to include The Hill House in his important survey of domestic architecture Das Englishe Haus (1904–5), but the building was not yet complete. Mackintosh wrote to him on 5 January 1903, evidently in response to a request for photographs, that the house was roofed, but the windows were not yet fitted and the walls would not be roughcast until May. 56

Drawing materials and reproductions

The cash book records that five different firms supplied the architects with their drawing materials: 'tracing cloth' (a woven linen), 'tracing paper', 'drawing paper', 'detail paper', and 'rolls of paper' were purchased from Glasgow firms George Smith & Co., Stuart & Brown and D. M. Watson; from Aitken Dott & Co. in Edinburgh; and George J. Poore & Co. in Liverpool. 57

Many of the surviving drawings made by the firm for submission to Dean of Guild Courts or equivalent committees awarding planning approval are photo-mechanical reproductions on paper. Only a limited number of payments recorded in the cash book address the matter of reproductions. In 1896, the firm paid George Mason for 'pyro acid and paper'. 58 Mason was also paid on at least three earlier occasions. These materials may have been purchased to copy drawings but equally may simply have been required to make copies of letters and other documents. Other drawings appear to have been sent out to specialist printers and lithographers to be copied. Carter & Pratt, lithographers and printers, who supplied the firm with writing paper for over a decade, were paid in connection with 'F[ree] W[est] Church' in 1889 and 'Largo plans' in 1896. 59 Hunter & Co., drawing materials dealers, were paid for 'photo prints' on several occasions from 1912 onwards. 60

Record Keeping ^

The four surviving job books, one cash book and one visit book provide a glimpse into the work and financial activity of the practice. However, these books would have formed just part of a much larger group of ledgers and documents in which records were kept. These probably included fee ledgers; time ledgers; salary books; register of certificates issued; records of cancelled cheques; copy fee notes; expenditure vouchers; bank books (equivalent of today's bank statements); and annual accounts (referred to as the 'balance sheet' in the Keppie-Mackintosh partnership agreement). 61

Cash-book entries

The cash book records both the firm's income (on the left side of each double page), which included fees paid by clients, and the outgoings (on the right) including staff salaries and wages, and numerous annual, monthly and other expenses.

Analysis of the cash book in conjunction with the copy of the Keppie-Mackintosh partnership agreement reveals a relatively steady annual income for the firm throughout the period 1889–1913. Prior to Mackintosh becoming a partner in 1901, the annual average was 1421; afterwards, 1696. The highest income, of 2634, was achieved in 1904. However this followed a poor year in terms of both fees and gross profit: several substantial projects were commenced in 1903 but income did not begin to arrive until the following year. These included the Willow Tea Rooms; 137–143 Sauchiehall Street; 518 Sauchiehall Street; Auchterarder Parish Church; the shop, flat and offices at Comrie; alterations and additions at Gadgirth; Scotland Street Public School; and the first phase of Dineiddwg. The firm's income from fees dropped noticeably from 1910 onwards. 62

During Mackintosh's time with the firm, routine expenses (beyond rent, salaries, wages, travel expenses and fees to freelance draughtsmen) included several payments annually of varying number and sums for coal and gas; annual payments for water, poor, police and school rates; for electric light (beginning in October 1906); annually for the telephone (beginning in 1900); for telegrams (1889–92); and for typewriting (1892–1901). 63 Throughout the period, the firm's accounts were managed by Honeyman & Drummond who were paid four guineas annually, and a further 7s 9d for insurance. 64

Income tax payments made by the firm seem to vary greatly during the period 1889–1913, from less than 30 to more than 70 annually. In some years the payments were recorded alongside a partner's name, and on some occasions, income tax appears to have been charged to the individual partners separately. 65 Property tax payments were recorded in 1895, 1906 and 1907 only. 66

More than 20 payments in connection with competitions are recorded in the cash book. Outgoing payments included application fees for competition conditions or entry fees, for instance, for the National Bank of Scotland in 1899 or Queen's University, Belfast, in 1910. 67 Among the incoming payments were fees to Keppie, who adjudicated several competitions, including improvements to the Bowes Museum, Bernard Castle, County Durham (21) and the Mitchell Library (52 10s 0d), both paid in 1906. 68

Other outgoing amounts included transfers to the firm's petty cash; payments to local institutions, e.g. the Royal Infirmary; personal transactions, including, once, Honeyman's rent in Bridge of Allan and Keppie's club or institution subscriptions, e.g. to Glasgow Art Club and once to the Grand Lodge; and loans from Keppie to family members and others. 69

Entries in the cash book appear to have been made initially by Honeyman before Keppie assumed responsibility from 1893. Keppie's remained the dominant hand in the cash book; Mackintosh's handwriting does not appear at all. Other unknown hands also appear, particularly to record the end of year abstracts in red ink, which may have been entered by the firm's accountants, Honeyman & Drummond.

Job-book entries

It appears that projects entered in the job books were often, but not always, recorded by the partner in charge of the work. Mackintosh's distinctive hand appears regularly from 1901 onwards after he became a partner, but rarely before that date. Other hands, not identifiable as Honeyman's or Keppie's, appear throughout the job books. Mackintosh's job-book entries can be more detailed than those of others. His entry for the Willow Tea Rooms, for instance, records the numbers, sizes and colours of glass beads required for the decorative scheme. 70 It also appears that the partner in charge of a project would also usually sign drawings to be submitted to a Dean of Guild Court or rural planning committee. Mackintosh signed just a handful of drawings with the firm's name before becoming a partner. 71

Notes:

1: Honeyman's earliest job book begins in 1852: John Honeyman job book, Coll. The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 53056. No documents associated with the setting up of the partnership have been located.

2: 'John Keppie', Dictionary of Scottish Architects, 1840–1980, www.scottisharchitects.org.uk [accessed 17 April 2013].

3: Glasgow University Archive Services: Anderson's College Medical School minutes, DC244/1/4, 9 October 1888; 26 October 1888; 12 November 1888.

4: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Glasgow Dean of Guild Court plans, TD1309/P/006.

5: British Architect, 30, 14 December 1888, p. 418.

6: Photocopy of a manuscript copy by John Keppie of the 'Contract of Partnership between John Keppie, Architect, in Glasgow, of the first part, and Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Architect there of the second part', 10 October 1901. Supplied by Roger Billcliffe, 30 April 2012. Original untraced.

7: Photocopy of a manuscript copy by John Keppie of the 'Contract of Partnership between John Keppie, Architect, in Glasgow, of the first part, and Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Architect there of the second part', 10 October 1901. Supplied by Roger Billcliffe, 30 April 2012. Original untraced.

8: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p. 95.

9: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p. 165.

10: Edinburgh Gazette, 6 January 1914, p. 42.

11: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 165, 167, 169.

12: The last of 10 payments is dated 16 April 1914: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 165–6.

13: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p.176.

14: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 83, 180.

15: 'Notable Glasgow Architect. Retirement of Mr John Keppie R.S.A.', Glasgow Herald, 31 July 1937, p. 13.

16: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p. 3; London: Royal Institute of British Architects, Charles Rennie Mackintosh's fellowship application, RIBA 2586-11 and 2587-11.

17: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 1–4.

18: 'Andrew Graham Henderson'; 'William Shepherd Moyes', DSA [accessed 17 April 2013]; Moyes's death record, New South Wales births, deaths and marriages, [accessed 17 April 2013].

19: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 83, 180.

20: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 46, 107; Noni Boyd, 'No Sacrifice in Sunshine, Walter Liberty Vernon: Architect 1846–1917', unpublished PhD thesis, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia, 2010, pp. 274, 276, 461.

21: University of Toronto, Robarts Library: letters from William S. Moyes to Thomas Howarth, 29 April 1947; 6 June 1947; 22 July 1947, B96-0028/017 (13).

22: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 50, 82, 128, 141, 162.

23: 'Donald McKay Stoddart'; 'George Andrew Paterson'; 'Thomas Lumsden Taylor'; 'Alexander Smellie'; 'Archibald Gilchrist Paton', Dictionary of Scottish Architects, 1840–1980, www.scottisharchitects.org.uk [accessed 17 May 2013].

24: 'Obituary Alexander McGibbon A.R.I.B.A. (Ret'd)', Builder, 156, 6 January 1939, p. 23.

25: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 13, 46, 51, 69, 83, 95, 107, 137.

26: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 35.

27: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 112, 132; 'Edward Wylie', Dictionary of Scottish Architects, 1840–1980, www.scottisharchitects.org.uk [accessed 17 April 2013].

28: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 1–14.

29: See for instance, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 45–50, 98-105.

30: 'Alexander McGibbon', Dictionary of Scottish Architects, 1840–1980, www.scottisharchitects.org.uk [accessed 17 April 2013]; David Stark, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co., Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, 2004, p. 146; Glasgow Art Club archive, membership roll 23 December 1903, photograph of Charles Whitelaw, unknown date.

31: A copy of the photograph was sent to the Mackintosh Architect project by Christopher Doak, an architect in Glasgow. His mother, Moira Cameron Doak, had acquired the photograph during her time as a shorthand typist for Keppie Henderson in the late 1940s when the office was reorganised and old material discarded. The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: letter and copy of photograph from Christopher Doak to Pamela Robertson, 19 September 2010.

32: Information supplied by Peta Motture and Eric Turner, Victoria & Albert Museum, London. The original marble relief is held by the Victoria and Albert Museum, inv. no. 4233–1857.

33: Honeyman's previous address at 61 West Regent Street was closer to the city centre. Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1874–5, p. 226; 1875–6, p. 233.

34: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Glasgow Dean of Guild Court plans, B4/12/1/784; Glasgow City Archives Collection: Glasgow Dean of Guild Court Register of Plans, B4/11/1, Petitioner John Honeyman, 28 February 1889.

35: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 102, 104.

36: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p. 98.

37: Glasgow Post Office directories, 1889–1913.

38: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 94–5, 112.

39: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p. 143.

40: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p. 145.

41: 1906: 4261 7s 7d; 1911: 1668 9s 1d. The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 105, 146.

42: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 53, 83, 98, 109.

43: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 35, 47, 69.

44: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 15, 22, 99, 135, 165.

45: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: letter from Mackintosh to F. J. Shand, 13 September 1905, GLAHA 55479.

46: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: letter from Mackintosh to F. J. Shand, 15 September 1905, GLAHA 55480.

47: Berlin, Werkbundarchiv, Museum der Dinge: Hermann Muthesius Estate, letter from Mackintosh to Hermann Muthesius, 12 May 1903; Academy Architecture, 17 January 1900, pp. 92–3.

48: J. Taylor, 'Modern Decorative Art at Glasgow: Some Notes on Miss Cranston's Argyle Street Tea House', Studio, 39, October 1906, pp. 35–6.

49: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp.71, 120, 169; Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1901–2, p. 365.

50: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 117, 135, 136.

51: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 94, 108, 125, 133, 137.

52: Fernando Agnoletti, 'The Hill House Helensburgh', Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, 8, 1904–5, March, pp. 337–59.

53: The Studio Year-book of Decorative Art, London and New York: The Studio, 1907, pp. 7, 32; Charles Marriott, Modern English Architecture, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1924, opp. p. 255

54: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p. 94; Scotsman, 20 November 1905, p. 9.

55: Hermann Muthesius, Die Englische Baukunst der Gegenwart, Leipzig and Berlin: Cosmos, 1900, p. 60; Berlin, Werkbundarchiv, Museum der Dinge: Hermann Muthesius Estate, letter from Mackintosh to Hermann Muthesius, 11 May 1898.

56: Berlin, Werkbundarchiv, Museum der Dinge: Hermann Muthesius Estate, letter from Mackintosh to Hermann Muthesius, 5 January 1903.

57: See for instance, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 21, 37, 38, 51; Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1890–1, pp. 553, 569, 613 (Daniel M. Watson was manager of Dalmarnock Paper Mills); Edinburgh Post Office Directory, 1900–1, p. 93; Kelly's Directory of Liverpool & Birkenhead, 1894, p. 669.

58: See for instance, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, p. 38.

59: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 3, 38.

60: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 144, 169, 174, 179. See the Architectural Drawings essay for a fuller discussion of production and use.

61: List of ledgers and other books suggested in Efric A. McNeil CA, 'Report on the Cash Books of Honeyman, Keppie Mackintosh for the period from 1889 through to 1917', 7 December 2012, prepared for the Mackintosh Architecture project.

62: Efric A. McNeil CA, 'Report on the Cash Books of Honeyman, Keppie Mackintosh for the period from 1889 through to 1917', 7 December 2012, prepared for the Mackintosh Architecture project.

63: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 2, 16, 41, 48, 60, 102.

64: See for instance, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 42–3, 85, 88, 159. Honeyman was John's older brother,Michael Honeyman.

65: See for instance, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 15, 51, 89, 154.

66: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 30, 103, 112.

67: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 51, 135, 137.

68: Bowes Museum Trustees minutes, 15 March 1906. Information supplied by curator Howard Coutts, 26 July 2012; 'John Keppie', Dictionary of Scottish Architects, 1840–1980, www.scottisharchitects.org.uk [accessed 23 May 2013]; The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 99, 102.

69: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh / Keppie Henderson cash book 1889–1917, GLAHA 53079, pp. 9, 32, 47, 69, 78, 90, 112, 129, 154, 159.

70: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh job book, GLAHA 53062, pp. 15–16, 32–4.

71: See for instance projects 25 Balmano Street and 8–12 Tarbet Street and 61–65 Dale Street.

Appendices

Office Staff 1889–1913

This list is derived from the office cashbook which covers the period January 1889–December 1917.

The list is arranged in chronological order. Periods of employment are based on first and last dates of payments as recorded in the cashbook; start and finish dates may have been outside these date spans; some payments may have been included under the collective terms 'Draughtsmen' and 'Salaries'; payments at the end of December were often described as 'New Year's gift'; occasionally subsequent payments were made to staff, suggesting they returned for one-off jobs; names entered only once have not been included.David Forbes Smith is cited by the Dictionary of Scottish Architects, 1840–1980, www.scottisharchitects.org.uk and in David Stark, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co., Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, 2004 as being employed in the office from c. 1888–9, but no payments are recorded in the cashbook.

Alexander McGibbon 12 February 1889–31 October 1890 [1891–1910 individual payments for perspective drawings]
James Herbert McNair 30 December 1889 [JHMc]–15 March 1894 [paid intermittently]
Henry Mitchell 30 December 1889 ['M']–30 August 1893
Charles Whitelaw 30 December 1889 ['CW']–13 January 1891
George Andrew Paterson 10 December 1893–30 December 1898
Donald M. Stoddart 29 December 1893–9 June 1900
James Black Fulton 4 July 1895–13 October 1897
W. S. Moyes 2 April 1898–1 February 1907
John Alfred Taylor Houston 3 May 1898–24 May 1899
Oswald Keir Lumsden 15 August 1898–27 December 1901
Thomas Lumsden Taylor 30 December 1898–6 March 1904
Wilfrid Fitzalan Crombie 2 August 1901–29 December 1902
Robert Reid 29 December 1902–27 December 1908
Sven H. Lingren 3 July 1903–31 March 1905
Allan Ramsay Macbeth 21 September 1903–27 December 1905
James Ferrigan 3 May 1904–31 March 1905
Andrew Graham Henderson 4 May 1904–1914 f.
John R. Hacking 31 March 1905–3 July 1908
Alexander Smellie 26 December 1906–5 May 1911 [payments for 'Comp' in 1913]
Robert Frame 30 March 1907–4 April 1911
Percival Cairns 3 April 1909–4 April 1910 [one-off payments in 1911, 1913 and 1914]
Archibald Gilchrist Paton 25 August 1909–1914 f.
Duncan Turner Thomson 2 November 1911–2 July 1912
James Duncan Diggle 30 December 1912–1914 f.