Architectural Drawings

Pamela Robertson

Overview     ^

Detail of Glasgow Herald building; elevation to Mitchell Lane

Mackintosh's architectural drawings and those by the firm of John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh during Mackintosh's years with the office from 1889 to 1913 (hereafter JHKM), are an important source of information related to dating and attribution of projects, materials used by the firm and the public dissemination of work. This essay outlines their production and use.

Over 12000 original drawings have been identified and catalogued, and can be searched via the Drawings tab. Additional drawings are known through periodical illustrations, which generally show student projects, competition entries or recently completed work. 1 Drawings exist for approximately half the projects in the Catalogue. No project has all of its drawings; in the majority of cases only a handful survives. The most extensive groupings are for the Glasgow School of Art (75) and the Glasgow Herald (88), but even then gaps are substantial – one phase of the Herald project, for example, has a drawing numbered 290. At least 570 are Dean of Guild Court drawings, i.e. those submitted for building consent. Over 240 were in Mackintosh's possession at the time of his death and formed part of the Mackintosh Estate. 2

Process     ^

Documentation of office working practice is sparse: a brief description by W. S. Moyes, a draughtsman with the firm from 1898 to 1907, two photographs of office staff, a drawing for an extension to 140 Bath Street in 1889 at the time Honeyman took Keppie into partnership, and cashbook entries for staff payments and the purchase of materials currently provide the only contextual information.

Moyes's recollections provide a brief but vivid picture of Mackintosh at work, during the period when he was taking on a larger role in design and, from 1901, was partner:

He was a very quick worker and never seemed to get tired. Most of the drawings for the various works were prepared by him, any assistance rendered by others being to sketches and information supplied. His usual method was to consider the problem and prepare a sketch on detail paper (obtained from a great roll larger than the rolls used for the production of newspapers). It was of good quality and the surface not rendered useless when a rubber was used. After sketches were considered and approved, plans, elevations and sections were made on Whatman paper rough surface to scale of ⅛ in = 1 ft, then if the nature of the design required more consideration scale drawings of portions of External and Internal work were made to Scale of ½ in = 1 ft any departure being incorporated in the ⅛ in scale plans before being traced. He did the tracing himself frequently using a broad strong line, and the firm supplied all helios [a form of collotype reproduction] from their own plant.
Sometimes he smoked a pipe as he worked at other times he would sing, a favourite being 'Tit Willow'. His palette consisted of less than twelve colours usually half or whole cakes, with a huge lump of Gamboge [yellow]. … He never appeared to have difficulty with regard to the solution of a problem, and he considered the nature of the material to be used. 3

The account hints at the volume of drawings required and the necessary use of mechanical copies, here helio. Just over 140 of the surviving drawings are photo-mechanical reproductions, often with applied washes and annotations. Three drawings for Treeshill are impressed with the term 'VELOGRAPHY', probably a trade name and indicating another copying process. It is clear from accounts such as that of Mackintosh's exact contemporary, Stanley Adshead, how much of an apprentice's time could be devoted to tracing copies from master drawings. 4

Payments in the office cash book identify the different employees during the Mackintosh years. 5 They comprised:

Alexander McGibbon 12 February 1889–31 October 1890 [1891–1910 individual payments for perspective drawings]
James Herbert McNair 30 December 1889 ['JHMc']–15 March 1894 [paid intermittently]
Henry Mitchell 30 December 1889 ['M']–30 August 1893
Charles Whitelaw 30 December 1889 ['CW']–13 January 1891
George Andrew Paterson 10 December 1893–30 December 1898
Donald M. Stoddart 29 December 1893–9 June 1900
James Black Fulton 4 July 1895–13 October 1897
W. S. Moyes 2 April 1898–1 February 1907
John Alfred Taylor Houston 3 May 1898–24 May 1899
Oswald Keir Lumsden 15 August 1898–27 December 1901
Thomas Lumsden Taylor 30 December 1898–6 March 1904
Wilfrid Fitzalan Crombie 2 August 1901–29 December 1902
Robert Reid 29 December 1902–27 December 1908
Sven H. Lingren 3 July 1903–31 March 1905
Allan Ramsay Macbeth 21 September 1903–27 December 1905
James Ferrigan 3 May 1904–31 March 1905
Andrew Graham Henderson 4 May 1904–1958
John R. Hacking 31 March 1905–3 July 1908
Alexander Smellie 26 December 1906–5 May 1911; payments for 'Comp' in 1913; 1920–1958
Robert Frame 30 March 1907–4 April 1911
Percival Cairns 3 April 1909–4 April 1910 [one-off payments in 1911, 1913 and 1914]
George Andrew Paterson 25 August 1909–before 1930
Duncan Turner Thomson 2 November 1911–2 July 1912
James Duncan Diggle 30 December 1912–1 April 1915

Between 1889 and 1897 there were an average of three employees during a year, in addition to Mackintosh, the partners, and James Herbert McNair (for whom payments are only recorded intermittently up to 1894), with a minimum of two in the mid 1890s, an average of five from 1898 to 1913, and a peak of seven in 1904 and 1905.

B/W drawing of plan; elevation; section

Little is known of the working environment. The drawing for an extension to the office at 140 Bath Street shows a single-storey addition with the W. elevation to be glazed along its entire length, suggesting the new space was to be a drawing office. The floor area was approximately 10 ft x 30 ft (3 m x 9.1 m). The earlier photograph of staff, which includes Mackintosh, shows only a photographer's backdrop. The later photograph of draughtsmen shows them suited and wearing protective coats, in a utilitarian top-lit space. Two of the men have been identified: A. Graham Henderson, standing in the centre holding a paint box; and to his right Alexander Smellie. The photo must date between 1906 and 1911 when Smellie was an employee and the practice was based at 4 Blythswood Square. The cast which has been positioned on the back wall is a copy of a relief by Giovanni Bastianini of the Virgin and Child, with two cherub heads, c. 1855. 6

B/W photograph of apprentices Photograph of Smellie apprentices

The JHKM office cash book records regular payments for tracing paper, tracing cloth and detail paper. 7 Suppliers were mainly local and included Carter & Pratt, Mollison & Co., Morison Bros, Edinburgh-based Aitken Dott & Co., and George J. Poore & Co., Liverpool. Other materials, such as brushes, pens, and pigments, must also have been provided. There are also occasional payments for mounting and framing, presumably for exhibition purposes, and for 'photo prints' of plans, suggesting drawings were taken out of the office to be copied. 8

Training     ^

Drawing was a core part of a young architect's training, and recognised as such by the Glasgow School of Art. In 1886, Sir James Watson, Chairman of the School, declared: 'As a Government School of Art our object is to give a thorough knowledge of drawing, designing, painting and modeling. In regard to drawing … all our great industries, whether of ship-building or house-building, whether of engineering or machine-making, whether of pattern drawing or the higher art of painting, must first have their origin in drawing, and without this basis none of them can be established.' 9 The highly structured National Course of Instruction determined the curriculum and was disseminated throughout the country from the Central School at South Kensington. Its 23 stages broke down the development of skills in drawing, painting, modeling and design into 56 components. Students progressed slowly from freehand outline from the flat copy, and subsequently three-dimensional object to shading from the flat and then the round – all using examples of historic ornament – until in the latter stages the student was allowed to work from life or nature. Publications by Maurice Adams, R. Phene Spiers and others provided further guidance. 10 An articled apprentice's five-year traineeship would typically be divided between full days in the office and evening classes at the local art school or college. In Glasgow, this meant the Glasgow School of Art or the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. 11 During his apprenticeship with John Hutchison from 1884–9, and for his first five years with JHKM as draughtsman/assistant, Mackintosh attended evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art, where most of his workmates also studied.

Different Hands     ^

Drawings are not always the output of one hand but can involve a range of individuals: draughtsman; annotator; signatory; Dean of Guild master of works. Different hands may have had responsibility for different components, e.g. headings, inscriptions, cover sheets, block plans, floor plans, elevations. The lead designer or partner may have been responsible, for example, for a master drawing, which was then copied and coloured, titled, annotated and signed by others.

It has been possible only to identify securely drawings by Mackintosh where they are signed, published as his, so distinctive stylistically that they could only be by him, or on grounds of provenance. The catalogue identifies these. Published sketches by Honeyman and Keppie and early architectural drawings by Keppie are known. 12 However no original architectural drawings by either from the period 1889 to 1913 have to date been securely identified, though these must exist at least within the various Dean of Guild archives. During Mackintosh's years in the practice, John Honeyman (b. 1831) was aging and his sight failing, and he appears to have gradually withdrawn from an active role before final retirement in 1904.

Detail of inscription from drainage plan

While it is not possible to attach employees' names to different drawings, stylistic variations are apparent, notably in inscriptions. Over the period 1889–1913, distinctive hands are apparent and a range of stylistic forms are used – serifs, broken lettering, solid and outline, elongated tails. The most striking variations appear in the 1890s, reflective perhaps of the experimentation and influence of the young Mackintosh. See, for example, the variant inscriptions on Dunloe (1889–91) or the Glasgow Art Club (1891–3); the extravagant flourishes in 110–118 Holm Street (1894); or the Mackintosh influence in Additions to 12–18 Forth and 65 Water Street (1896). Inscriptions on drawings from the early 1900s onwards are more restrained. One distinctive hand is the forward sloping capitals from around 1906, seen in for example Addition to 14 Blythswood Square (1906–7).

Detail of inscription from second-floor plan and S. elevation Detail of inscription from block plan Detail of inscription from drawing of first-floor plan; N. and E. elevations; section Detail of inscription from drawing of basement and ground-floor plans Detail showing inscriptions from drawing of plans; elevations; sections, 14 Blythswood Square, 1906 (M ADD d273_002) ????????

Signing Off     ^

Normal practice was for the partner responsible for a project, in a managerial and/or design role, to sign off drawings, including those submitted to the Dean of Guild for approval. However in the late 1880s and 1890s, there is a hand that is neither Honeyman nor Keppie.

Detail of John Honeyman signature from first-floor plan Detail of John Keppie signature from ground, first, second-floor and attic plans Detail of C. R. Mackintosh signature, from drawing of second-floor plan; plan of entresol between first and second floors Detail of unidentified signature, from block plan

During the period under review, the vast majority of projects were signed off by John Keppie. Only a few were signed off by John Honeyman: Bridge of Allan Quoad Sacra Church hall; Halls at Free Church West, Perth, and Martyrs Public School. The vast majority of the Category 1 projects after 1901 – i.e. those for which Mackintosh was lead designer after becoming a partner – and for which signed Dean of Guild drawings survive, carry Mackintosh's signature.

There are anomalies. It is surprising, for example, that Keppie signed off on the alterations to Mackintosh's new home at 6 Florentine Terrace or that Mackintosh signed off on the 1890s tenements at Balmano and Tarbet Street, and Dale Street, which predate his partnership, or Keppie's Parkhead Savings Bank. But this may simply reflect who was available in the office with a deadline to meet rather than suggesting any greater input.

Drawings for Different Purposes     ^

Each project would have generated a range of different types of drawings, depending on the requirements of the job: rapid survey sketches made on site visits; measured drawings of an existing building; sketch ideas; client presentation drawings; Dean of Guild drawings; revised drawings; detail drawings; office and contractor sets; and display drawings, usually exterior perspectives.

Dean of Guild drawings

The largest surviving groups are the Dean of Guild drawings. Iain Gray has provided a succinct summary of their role: 'Architectural drawings had to be submitted within the petition to demonstrate adherence to the building regulations. Courts required plans of the foundations, of each floor and of the roof; elevations and sections of the building; and a block plan showing the size and position of the building relative to adjoining streets and buildings. Drainage, means of ventilation and the dimensions of structural features were also to be shown, and if construction entailed engineering work, engineering drawings had also to be submitted …. Approved plans were retained as a permanent record of the proposals for which a warrant was granted.' 13

Detail drawings

By contrast, though each realised project would have required multiple detailed construction drawings, only a very small number have so far been located. These include full-size details for the picture gallery floor at Broughton House (1909–10), and details of the staircase and windows at Leigh Farm Cottages (1920–1). Such contractor drawings would routinely have been discarded at the end of a job.


Photograph of perspective drawing of Pettigrew & Stephens by Alexander McGibbon

Perspective drawings were prestige items for competition entries, exhibition, publication, and/or presentation to a client. Perspectives also served as fund-raising or promotional tools, as in the case of Iona and Brechin Cathedrals, or Alexander McGibbon's small perspective of 1907 of the Glasgow School of Art, which emphasises its half-built status in support of the campaign to complete the building. Over 30 perspectives are recorded during the period 1889–1913, of which over half were by Mackintosh. 14 The practice clearly exploited his outstanding draughtsmanship; the only other perspective by a JHKM staff member identified to date is that by A. Graham Henderson of Auchinibert. Alternatively drawings were commissioned, for an average of between four and six guineas, principally from the experienced draughtsman Alexander McGibbon, and also from Thomas Raffles Davison. 15 Some views for publication, such as the interiors of Dunloe published in the British Architect, may well have been commissioned by the periodical, or, as in the case of a commercial client such as Pettigrew & Stephens, commissioned for their own marketing purposes. 16

Perspectives by McGibbon for nine JHKM projects are known from their reproduction as line drawings variously in Academy Architecture, British Architect and Building News. 17 Only two originals are known, for Dunloe and the Glasgow School of Art (half built). Those for Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College, 137–143 Sauchiehall Street, 309–313 Sauchiehall Street and the Usher Hall, Edinburgh, are untraced. 18 Typically the buildings are presented with a suggestion of the setting – parkland, streetscape, garden grounds; the views are populated, often with carriages pulled by cantering horses for a sense of scale and movement; and shown against close-hatched, cloud-filled skies.

Colour photograph of perspective of Canal Boatmen's Institute, 'British Architect', 5 July 1895, p. 8

The British Architect illustrates perspectives by Thomas Raffles Davison for the James Sellars monument (probably a commission from the periodical not the practice), Canal Boatmen's Institute and Paisley Technical School, while his perspective for the Glasgow International Exhibition 1901, the most ambitious perspective commissioned by JHKM, is known from a photograph by T. & R. Annan. Davison's skilful drawings present picturesque, conventional views.

Mackintosh's perspectives all relate to projects for which he was lead designer: the Glasgow Herald building, Queen Margaret Anatomical Department, Martyrs Public School, Queen's Cross Church, Daily Record building, Windyhill, House for an Art Lover competition, Liverpool Cathedral competition, The Hill House, Scotland Street Public School and Auchinibert. With the exception of those for the House for an Art Lover, which were probably dispatched to the competition organiser, Alexander Koch, all survive in the original, either through the Mackintosh Estate or the practice. The lack of a full perspective for the Glasgow School of Art is surprising, but it was not a requirement of the competition, and its value may have been compromised by the building's construction in two phases.

B/W drawing of perspectiveB/W drawing of perspective from the S.W.

All of the perspectives are characterised by Mackintosh's accomplished and expressive line; they are often dramatised by a low viewpoint and exaggerated recession, and distinguished by their highly stylised striated skies and decorative twists of trees and shrubs. The most striking shift comes with the move from the closely realised surfaces of for example the Herald or Queen's Cross Church, to the white ghost-like forms of the rendered houses of the early 1900s. The series culminates in his last and intensely-worked perspectives for stone-built Auchinibert, which stand in marked contrast to the picturesque perspective published by his colleague, Andrew Graham Henderson.

B/W drawing of perspective from the S.W. Reproduction of perspective from the N.E., Auchinibert, by A. G. Henderson (M ADD d263_022) ???????????

Auchinibert provides a rare example of preliminary perspective drawings. Two pencil drawings, one with annotations by Mackintosh and a scale, conform to the S.W. and N.E. orientation of the Mackintosh and Henderson views. Whether these were to have been underdrawings or were separate preliminary drawings for finished perspectives is not clear. W. S. Moyes later outlined the process for the production of the Scotland Street Public School perspective, writing to Thomas Howarth that it should not be credited to him (though his signature is on the drawing, beneath the tree at bottom right): 'Regarding [the] perspective of Scotland Street Public School, I may have set up the perspective in pencil for Mr. Mackintosh but he would have completed it in ink and added the master touches.' 19

Reproduction of perspective by J. B. Fulton of royal mausoleum, from 'Builder', 4 February 1900

Few if any other architectural draughtsmen matched Mackintosh's individuality. An often cited exception are the drawings of James Black Fulton, a colleague in the office from 1895–7. Few of his drawings survive, but the one flower drawing traced to date, and the perspective for his medal-winning Tite Prize scheme of 1899 for a Royal Mausoleum, show marked parallels with Mackintosh. 20 The British Architect's review of the 1898 exhibition of student work at the Royal Institute of British Architects enthused: 'It is a pleasure to pass on to the drawings which have secured for Mr. Jas. B. Fulton the Aldwinckle Studentship, for there has been no better draughtsmanship exhibited at the Institute than is shown in these. This decisive conventional style, which has become more particularly associated with Glasgow men, is one of the best translations for architectural and decorative forms which has ever been developed, and Mr. Fulton is a very worthy exponent of it. His studies of plant life are both vigorous and refined. Altogether, as a mere matter of draughtsmanship, Mr. Fulton's work reaches a higher level than Mr. de Gruchy's work for the Pugin Studentship.' 21

Exhibitions     ^

Exhibitions were an important means of dissemination, though Honeyman had expressed reservations about their effectiveness in conveying the buildings they represented. 22 JHKM exhibited primarily in Scotland, with regular submissions to the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts (from 1896 the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts) and the Royal Scottish Academy. 23 The rising status of architecture as an art form is illustrated by architecture being given a dedicated room in the Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts annual exhibitions from 1893. In some cases, competition designs were put on public view, as with the Glasgow School of Art entries at the Corporation Galleries, Glasgow, in February 1897, or the Liverpool Cathedral competition entries at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, in July 1902. A strong presence was made at the Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901, with exhibits for seven projects 24

There appears to have been limited international exposure; the practice's focus was very much on Scotland, and the Glasgow / Edinburgh axis. Only one overseas loan by the practice is known: two drawings for the Glasgow Art Galleries competition were shown in the vast British Architecture section at the World's Columbian exhibition in Chicago in 1893. 25 In his own right, Mackintosh sent drawings and views of The Hill House and the House for an Art Lover portfolio to the 1907 Pittsburgh Architectural Club exhibition. 26 In 1902, Alexander Koch had exhibited the newly published House for an Art Lover portfolio at the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art, Turin; other sets were doubtless exhibited elsewhere. Such exposure arguably made the portfolio the best known of Mackintosh's schemes.

The exhibits are not always straightforward to analyse. While the catalogue entries may name the project, they do not always specify what type of drawing(s) were exhibited or whether the exhibit comprised or included photographs. Photographs were increasingly used. Architecture magazine noted in a detailed article on 'Photography for Architects' in 1898 that 'photography has been made so absurdly easy in these latter days, insomuch that all sorts and conditions of men practice it with more or less success'. 27 At the Glasgow International Exhibition 1901, John Honeyman chose to represent six of his buildings by photographs. 28 By 1902, the Builder could note of the architectural exhibits at the Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts: 'The presence of photographs is more marked than ever; they form a full quarter of the display.' 29

Critical Reception     ^

B/W drawing of perspective

Contemporary responses tended to come in exhibition reviews. Although the critics usually focused on the architectural design, not the drawing, sufficient comments exist to show opinion divided between appreciation of Mackintosh's draughtsmanship and concern that a) the 'clever' and 'mannered' work distracted from the design or was inappropriate for it, and b) that it had or would have a detrimental influence on his contemporaries. The Builder wrote of Mackintosh's Liverpool Cathedral perspective as 'an example of "L'Art Nouveau" both in design and in manner of drawing; a building nearly white against a shaded background, with battering central tower, battering buttresses, sculpture cropping up in unexpected places; white spaces and bits of concentrated ornament here and there. A very clever sketch, but quite inadequate in dignity and style for a cathedral; it might furnish a hint for a picturesque parish church.' 30 Two perspectives of The Hill House were illustrated in The Studio Year-Book of Decorative Art, 1907 with the equivocal comment: 'it may be judged how much works of this kind owe of attractiveness or the reverse to elaborately mannered drawings.' 31

Other comments identify the emergence of a distinctive Glasgow manner. Measured drawings of St Michael's, Linlithgow, submitted for the RIBA Measured Drawings prize in 1899, prompted the reviewer to note: 'The drawings … show good firm drawing, and the exterior view, according to the Glasgow convention, clever but hard. Not only do ugly-shaped hard bands of cloud cross the sky and obscure the outline of the church, but, alas! the church itself is out of drawing.' 32 Later, the Builder's Journal and Architectural Record, in writing about one of Mackintosh's Liverpool Cathedral drawings, described: 'a design in the manner which has come to be known as the Glasgow School and [which] owes much of its interest to certain quaint and unorthodox detail and to the technique of the drawing. The design is otherwise upon ordinary mediaeval lines.' 33 The distinctive lettering was also commented on. In a review of the 1894 South Kensington prize exhibition, the British Architect described the lettering on some drawings by the Glasgow School of Art trained Albert Hodge (1875–1917) as 'showing the waywardness of genius', but noted 'the lettering is not original, but, we think, was to be first attributed to Mr Mcintosh [sic], who did it with more kindly consideration for human limitation of comprehension.' 34

After Glasgow     ^

Ink and coloured wash drawing of elevation

When he first arrived in London in 1915, Mackintosh took part in his friend Patrick Geddes's Summer Meeting, during which it is likely he produced a series of drawings: Designs for buildings in an arcaded street; Design for a memorial fountain in a public place; Design for street lighting standards; and Design for a war memorial in a public place. Once he had set up his studio at 43a Glebe Place, Chelsea, Mackintosh appears to have largely worked on his own. However his diary for 1920 records him taking on short-term help for specific projects: Paul Hudson for the Harold Squire studio in March and Hope Elder for Leigh Farm Cottages in early 1921. 35 Drawings showing a hand other than Mackintosh's survive for a number of projects around 1920: Additions and alterations to a house at Little Hedgecourt (1919–20), Studio-house for Harold Squire; Design for a theatre for Margaret Morris (1920); and Addition and alterations to Leigh Farm Cottages, Ansty (1920–1). One exhibition is documented: two drawings for the Chelsea studio schemes were included in an 'Exhibition of Contemporary British Architecture' at the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1922. These were the last architectural drawings shown by Mackintosh in his lifetime. They went virtually unnoticed and appeared outmoded to one commentator. The architect and critic H. S. Goodhart-Rendel commented: 'Two exhibits sent by Mr C. R. Mackintosh looked curiously old-fashioned, and recalled to mind the illustrations which one finds in turning over the pages of early volumes of "The Studio".' 36

Travel Sketches     ^

Sketch of Oasthouses, Chiddingstone, Kent, 1910, from Sketchbook of tours in Kent, Sussex, Norfolk, Suffolk and Perthshire: p. 57

A different but highly important form of drawing for the young architect were informal travel sketches, referred to by Mackintosh as 'bits' and 'jottings'. Sketching day trips or longer tours were common practice and seen as an integral part of an architect's training. In Glasgow such study trips were encouraged through the Glasgow School of Art Club, set up by Newbery in 1885 for past and present students of the School with annual exhibitions of summer work, and through the Glasgow Architectural Association which published members' sketches in its Sketchbooks. Keppie, McGibbon, Mackintosh, Moyes, Stoddart and former staff J. B. Fulton and Charles Whitelaw were among the many contributors. 37 Eight travel sketchbooks by Mackintosh survive. 38 These contain exquisite drawings of architectural details in Italy, Scotland, and in particular, England. 39 The drawings were a valuable resource as reference library, exhibits, competition entries, and illustrations for lectures. Mackintosh's 1891 Italian tour drawings and watercolours, for example, were put to particularly good use. Selections were exhibited at the 1891 Glasgow School of Art Club Annual Exhibition, at the Glasgow Institute in 1892 and 1893, published in the Glasgow Architectural Association Sketchbook of 1894, and submitted (unsuccessfully) for the Pugin Studentship in 1892. At the very least they raised awareness of his remarkable artistic gifts. The Glasgow Boy painter James Guthrie was reputedly so impressed with the work at the Art Club exhibition that he exclaimed to Newbery, 'But hang it, Newbery, the man ought to be an artist!' 40

Sketch of Abbot's Grange, Church Street, Broadway, Worcestershire, 1894, from Sketchbook of a tour in Gloucestershire, Worcestershire etc., p. 14Reproductions of sketches by John Keppie of Chester, Gawsworth Church, Cheshire and Elgin Cathedral, from 'British Architect', 2 March 1888

Public Collections     ^

Architectural drawings by Mackintosh and JHKM are held in the following public collections. The primary holdings are those at The Hunterian and Glasgow City Archives.

Angus Archives, Forfar
Argyll and Bute Council Archives
Biggar Museum Trust
The Bowes Museum
British Museum, London
East Dunbartonshire Leisure & Culture Trust
East Renfrewshire Archives
English Heritage
Glasgow Art Club
Glasgow City Archives
The Glasgow School of Art
Heritage Services, Renfrewshire Libraries
The Hunterian, University of Glasgow
National Archives of Scotland
National Trust for Scotland
Perth & Kinross Council Archive
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
Royal Institute of British Architects
Stirling Council Archive Services
Strathclyde University Archives
University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections


1: Published drawings exist for: (1) student designs for A Public Hall, A Science and Art Museum, A Chapter House, and a Railway Terminus; (2) competition entries for Glasgow Art Galleries (Ionic, Towers and Dome), Paisley Technical School;Royal Insurance Company offices, Glasgow International Exhibition 1901, and Manchester Municipal Technical School; (3) completed work: Anderson College, Canal Boatmen's Institute, Dineiddwg, Dunloe, Paisley Free Library and Museum, Pettigrew & Stephens, Redlands. These illustrations are displayed in the Drawings tab for the relevant project.

2: Following Margaret Macdonald's death in 1933, a selling exhibition was held in Glasgow from the Mackintoshes' estate. The residue was subsequently safeguarded by William Davidson and in 1947 transferred to the University of Glasgow. This provenance is identified in the Drawings Catalogue as The Mackintosh Estate.

3: W. S. Moyes to Thomas Howarth [29 April] 1947, Coll. Robarts Library, University of Toronto, B96-0028/017 (13). It is not clear what specific reproduction process Moyes referred to as 'helio' – a range of different processes was available at that time, see for example 'heliotype' in Workshop Receipts for Manufacturers and Scientific Amateurs, London and New York: E. & F. Spon, 1883, vol. 2, pp. 188–9. The range of colours appears broader than would typically be required for office work, but perhaps reflects Mackintosh's activity as a watercolourist.

4: Alan Powers, '"Architects I Have Known": The architectural career of S. D. Adshead', Architectural History, 24, 1981, pp. 103–23.

5: This list is derived from the office cash book which covers the period January 1889–December 1917, Coll. The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 53079. David Forbes Smith is cited by the Dictionary of Scottish Architects, 1840–1980, and in David Stark, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co., Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, 2004 as being employed in the office from c. 1888–9, but no payments are recorded in the cash book. Periods of employment are based on first and last dates of payments as recorded in the cash book; start and finish dates may have been outside these date spans. Occasionally subsequent payments were made to staff suggesting they returned for one-off jobs. Names entered only once have not been included.

6: The original marble relief is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, inv. no. 4233–1857. We are grateful to Peta Motture and Eric Turner, V&A, for identifying the work.

7: The cash book can be searched here.

8: T. & R. Annan, George Davidson, John Gibson, C. R. Menzies, Robert Macindoe. See for example JHKM cash book payments to Hunter & Co., drawing materials dealers, 183 West Campbell Street, Glasgow, for 'plans' in 1913 and 1914, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie/Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh cash book, GLAHA 53079, pp. 160, 169.

9: Annual Report, The Glasgow School of Art, 1884–5, p. 11.

10: See, for example: Maurice Adams, Architectural Drawing, London: RIBA Transactions, 1885 or R. Phene Spiers, Architectural Drawings, London & New York: Cassell, 1887.

11: Henry Dyer, 'The Training of Architects', Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 20, 1889, pp. 1–21.

12: See for example Keppie's competition design for a Post Office, British Architect, 29, 1888, f. p. 154 and vacation sketches, British Architect, 30, 1888, f. p. 294.

13: Iain M. Gray, 'A History of the Dean of Guild Court and the Nature of its Records', in Rebecca M. Bailey, ed., Scottish Architects' Papers: A Source Book, Edinburgh: The Rutland Press, 1996, p. 174.

14: One conspicuous absence is the lack of any record of a perspective for one of the practice's largest and most ambitious projects, the extravagant mansion, Dineiddwg (1903–11).

15: One-off payments are noted to Alex Miller for an unidentified building in 1907 and to Edward Wylie in 1910 for Cardiff Museum, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie/Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh cash book, GLAHA 53079, pp. 112, 132.

16: It is probable that the lithograph view of Pettigrew & Stephens department store of 1904 was commissioned by the client.

17: In chronological order: Glasgow Art Galleries (Towers), Manchester Municipal Technical School, Royal Insurance Company offices, Brechin Cathedral, Pettigrew & Stephens, Redlands, Paisley Free Library and Museum, Iona Cathedral, and the Glasgow School of Art (half-built).

18: There is a payment of two guineas to McGibbon on 28 March for what could be a perspective for Belhaven Church and one for an unidentified perspective on 7 June 1900, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh cash book, GLAHA 53079, pp. 51, 59.

19: W. S. Moyes to Thomas Howarth, 22 July 1947, University of Toronto, Robarts Library, B96-0028/017 (13).

20: Wild Flower, Carmona, 30 April 1898, pencil on paper, Lyon & Turnbull, Decorative Arts, Glasgow 18 April, 2000 (316), Private Collection. Builder, 9, 4 February 1899, between pp. 118 and 119; Coll. RIBA Drawings Collection: PB 261/9.

21: British Architect, 49, 21 January 1898, p. 37.

22: John Honeyman, 'On the Exhibiting of Architectural Drawings', Scottish Art Review, 1, 1889, pp. 33–5.

23: For full listings see Roger Billcliffe, The Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, 1861–1989, Glasgow: The Woodend Press, 1990 and Charles Baile de Laperriere, ed., The Royal Scottish Academy Exhibitors 1826–1990, Calne, Wiltshire: Hilmarton Manor Press, 1991.

24: Official Catalogue of the Fine Art Section, Glasgow International Exhibition 1901, Glasgow: Charles Watson, 1901. The projects were: Competitive design for Royal Insurance Company (1); Queen Margaret College, Medical Department (59); St Matthew's Church [Queen's Cross Church] (192); Design for Proposed Technical School, Paisley (290); Design for Proposed National Bank Buildings (311); Warehouse, Sauchiehall Street [Pettigrew & Stephens or 309–313 Sauchiehall Street?] (285); and the Daily Record offices (287). In addition there were John Honeyman's Skipness Castle (194) and photographs of six other Honeyman buildings (396). Keppie was a member of the General Committee for Fine Art, Scottish History and Archaeology.

25: World's Columbian Exposition, Revised Catalogue, Department of Fine Arts, Chicago: W. B. Conkey & Co., 1893 (9950 and 1013).

26: Catalog of the Fourth Exhibition, Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Architectural Club, 1907 (752–4 and 757–9).

27: G. E. Brown, 'Photography for Architects', Architecture, January 1898, pp. 224–7.

28: Official Catalogue of the Fine Art Section, Glasgow International Exhibition 1901, Glasgow: Charles Watson, 1901 (396).

29: Builder, 82, 26 April 1902, p. 412; see Office essay for a summary of JHKM's use of photography.

30: Builder, 83, 26 July 1902, p. 70.

31: The Studio Year-book of Decorative Art, London & New York: The Studio, 1907, p. 7.

32: British Architect, 51, 20 January 1899, p. 38. These may well have been the drawings of St Michael's for which Donald M. Stoddart, a contemporary of Mackintosh with JHKM from 1893–1900, was awarded a silver medal in the National Competition for Schools of Art, as reported in the British Architect, 50, 29 July 1898, p. 74.

33: Builder's Journal and Architectural Record, 16, 30 July 1902 p. 380.

34: British Architect, 42, 3 August 1894, p. 76.

35: Mackintosh's diary for 1920, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 52408, entry for work on Harold Squire's studio, 30 March 1920, and for work on Leigh Farm Cottages, 10 January 1921.

36: Architectural Review, 53, January 1923, p. 31.

37: Five volumes were published, between 1886 and 1904. See, for example, Glasgow Architectural Association Sketchbook: KEPPIE, vol. 1, 1886: Plate 12 Kilwinning Abbey and Maybole College; vol. 2, 1887: Plate 6 Lucca doorways; vol. 3, 1888: Plate 6 Sketches of Moreton Hall and Blakenhall, Cheshire, Plate 37 Bargello Palace, Florence; vol. 4, 1894: p. 6 Sketches of Lucca Cathedral and Sant' Alessandro church; McGIBBON, vol. 1, 1886: Plate 16 Glasgow Old College, Plate 17 Glasgow Cathedral, Plates 18 and 19, Glasgow Athenaeum; vol. 2, 1887: Plate 20, Jedburgh Abbey, Plate 21 Kelso Abbey; vol. 3, 1888, Plate 23 Kelso Abbey, Plate 25 Lincoln Cathedral; vol. 4, 1894: Plate 31, Norman details; MACKINTOSH, vol. 4, 1894: p. 17 Sketches of the Font, Siena Cathedral; W. S. MOYES, vol. 5, 1904: Plate 18 Monument, Glasgow Cathedral, Plate 23 House, Leith and Courtyard, Linlithgow Palace; DONALD McKAY STODDART, vol. 5, 1904: Plate 8 Certosa di Pavia window, Plate 9 Certosa di Pavia door; J. B. FULTON, vol. 5, 1904: Plate 1 Sistine Chapel; Plate 10 Doorways and Altar-piece, Spain; CHARLES WHITELAW, vol. 4, 1894: p. 21 Church of St Peter and St Paul, Drax, Yorkshire.

38: Four travel sketchbooks Coll. The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 53011 Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, 1894; GLAHA 53012 Scotland and Kent, 1894–5; GLAHA 53013 East Anglia and Devon, 1896–8; GLAHA 53014, Kent, Sussex, Norfolk, Suffolk and Perthshire 1897–1914; North Italian tour sketchbook, Coll. The Glasgow School of Art; three sketchbooks, Coll. National Library Ireland, Scottish sketchbook, PD 2011TX; Botanical sketchbook PD 2010 TX; Italian and Scottish sketchbook PD 2009 TX. In addition there are well over 150 dismembered sketchbook pages of which the largest holding is at The Hunterian.

39: Alan Crawford, 'Mackintosh: The Sketching Tours', in Pamela Robertson, ed., Charles Rennie Mackintosh Architectural Sketches, Glasgow: The Hunterian, 2002, pp. 6–24.

40: Pamela Robertson, ed., Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Architectural Papers, Wendlebury, Oxon: White Cockade in association with the Hunterian Art Gallery, 1990, p. 84.