Clients

Nicky Imrie

Overview     ^

The Catalogue contains over 350 architectural projects by Mackintosh, and by the practice of John Honeyman & Keppie / Honeyman, Keppie & Mackintosh during the Mackintosh years, 1889–1913 (hereafter JHKM).

These include over 250 projects recorded in the JHKM job books; 19 competition entries; proposals that were not taken up; 7 Mackintosh student designs; some 20 private Mackintosh commissions and proposals from the Glasgow years, over 20 after he had left the firm; and a group of designs for which little documentary information exists. The clients for many of these projects are known. An investigation of their profile and the types of work commissioned helps to establish the professional profile of the practice and the networks that supported its activity. 1

Client Profile     ^

JHKM's individual clients were predominantly businessmen and professionals and included merchants, doctors, manufacturers, retailers, and property developers. Institutional clients included school boards and higher education committees; the Church of Scotland, Free Church, United Presbyterian and United Free churches; and two of Glasgow's leading newspapers, the Glasgow Herald and Daily Record.

Mackintosh's private clients, i.e. for jobs that did not go through the practice, had a strong artistic profile, including art publishers and artistic retailers. This work included furniture commissions for friends, acquaintances and the decorators J. & W. Guthrie; interior decoration and furniture for Miss Catherine (Kate) Cranston's artistic lunch and tea rooms; a dining room for Munich publisher, Hugo Bruckmann; a bedroom at Westdel for Glasgow publisher, James Maclehose; furniture and decoration at Dunglass Castle, Bowling, Dunbartonshire for Margaret Macdonald's brother, Charles; Windyhill for produce broker, William Davidson; and furniture and decoration at 14 Kingsborough Gardens for Jessie Newbery nee Rowat's cousin Robert Rowat, and his wife Jenny. Following the Mackintoshes' departure from Glasgow in 1914, commissions came from the sociologist and urban planner, Patrick Geddes; Northampton engineer and proponent of modern design, W. J. Bassett-Lowke; and friends and contacts in the fine and performing arts in Chelsea, London.

Commissions     ^

The largest proportion of the firm's built work was residential (about 37%) and ecclesiastical (about 20%). Domestic work included 18 new houses mainly located in or close to the villages W. of Glasgow which had grown rapidly following the arrival of the railway from the 1860s. These houses ranged from the modest Auchenbothie Gate Lodge at Kilmacolm, costing just over £500, to the lavish Dineiddwg house and estate , N. of Milngavie, costing over £34,000. Alterations and additions costing from £5 to over £10,000, were made to more than 70 houses distributed primarily across central Scotland. At the lower end of the social scale, the firm built four blocks of tenements, for the City Improvement Trust and private clients, and carried out sanitary improvements at 13 tenement blocks located in some of Glasgow's most impoverished areas. Ecclesiastical work included four new churches, seven church halls, and five cathedral and church restoration projects.

The remaining 43% of built work comprised new buildings and alterations and additions to existing buildings for (1) educational clients, (2) industrial clients, (3) commercial clients, (4) charitable clients, and (5) a significant group of commemorative monuments. Work included (1) the Glasgow School of Art, Queen Margaret College Anatomical Department and Jordanhill Demonstration School; (2) the Skin and Hide Market and Cheapside Street Grain Store; (3) Miss Cranston's Lunch and Tea Rooms, Ingram Street and the shop, flat and offices at Comrie; (4) Bellahouston Dispensary and alterations to the Guild of Aid's premises; and (5) the Miller memorial at Glasgow Necropolis, Mann memorial at East Kilbride, South Lanarkshire, and the Reid gravestone at Kilmacolm, Renfrewshire.

There are conspicuous absences from the portfolio of JHKM. For example, they did not build or restore any large country houses or castles nor undertake any ship-fitting work. Nor did they make any substantial contribution to Glasgow's cityscape, with the exception of the Hope Street tenements: significant individual buildings such as the Glasgow Herald and Daily Record newspaper buildings and the Glasgow School of Art are located off main thoroughfares, while Queen's Cross Church, Martyrs' School and Scotland Street School, and the now-demolished Rutherglen Road and Hospital Street tenements built for the City Corporation, are or were located some distance from the centre. The firm was unsuccessful in two prestigious competitions for large city-centre buildings for corporate clients, the Royal Insurance Company (1894–5) and the National Bank of Scotland (1898). Only on Sauchiehall Street, one of the city's principal shopping streets, did the firm make a mark. Between 1903 and 1906, they built three commercial buildings – an office building including tea rooms at 137–143, a six-storey furniture shop at 309–313, and premises for photographers T. & R. Annan & Sons at 518; at 217, the facade was reconstructed and the interiors remodelled for the Willow Tea Rooms; and alterations were carried out to the shopfront at 229–233 SauchiehallStreet.

Networks     ^

The origins of many commissions are not, at present, clear and many client-architect and inter-client connections remain speculative. While a number of direct relationships between the partners and their clients have been identified, little is known of their nature or exactly how clients came to commission the firm. However, some networks can be mapped out.

The Practice

The firm's genealogy proved advantageous in securing work. JHKM carried out more than 45 projects for clients who had been associated with John Honeyman during the years before the establishment of John Honeyman & Keppie in November 1888. Clients also came through the Glasgow firms where John Keppie and Mackintosh had served their apprenticeships: Campbell Douglas & Sellars (previously Campbell Douglas & Stevenson) and John Hutchison respectively.

From the 1860s, John Honeyman had been a leading designer of churches and several projects were carried out by the new partnership for existing ecclesiastical clients: church halls were built at Honeyman's Dean Park Parish Church in Govan and Free West Church in Perth; Ruchill mission halls for Westbourne Free Church, Glasgow; and alterations were carried out at more than ten of his churches or associated manses. 2 There were major additions and alterations at his Paisley Library and Museum and at Craigie Hall in Glasgow; and clusters of minor alterations and additions to previous commissions at Helensburgh, Paisley, Skelmorlie and Wemyss Bay on the Ayrshire coast, and at Bridge of Allan, Stirlingshire. Honeyman lived in Skelmorlie from 1868 to 1881 and at Bridge of Allan from 1884 until his death in 1914. This doubtless contributed to the concentration of work in and around these villages. 3

John Keppie brought the Anderson's College Medical School contract with him from Campbell Douglas & Sellars, following James Sellars's death in October 1888. This connection may also have contributed to the Glasgow Herald commission; Sellars had been the architect of its first building in Buchanan Street in 1880.

Between 1901 and 1908 Mackintosh worked on four interior decoration and furniture commissions for the Rowat family; three of these, at Prospect Hill House, Paisley; Warriston, Paisley; and 3 Lilybank Terrace, Glasgow, are recorded in the job books. The connection may have come about through Jessie Rowat, a student then teacher at the Glasgow School of Art, who married its Headmaster (the title was changed later to Director),Francis H. ('Fra') Newbery, in 1889. But a previous link exists through Mackintosh's former employer, John Hutchison. Hutchison designed St Margaret's House for William Rowat at Paisley in 1879 and subsequently designed a large warehouse in Buchanan Street (1888–9), with which Mackintosh was directly involved, for Rowat's nephew-in-law,Robert Wylie Hill.

Families and Neighbours

The firm carried out shop-fitting work at 17 West Regent Street for Keppie's uncle, Hugh Hopkins, a noted bookseller, in 1890, and for his son Hugh Cuthbertson Hopkins in 1913. Major alterations and additions were made at Gadgirth house and estate near Ayr in 1902–3 for the Glasgow tobacco merchant Finlay Smith, who had once been a business associate of Keppie's father. 4 In 1910, minor work was carried out at city-centre offices at 44 West George Street, for Smith's son-in-law, R. A. McLean, a Glasgow stockbroker. Lawyer James Muirhead and his wife, Robina (née Spence), may have come to commission the firm to make minor alterations to their house at 2 Bowmont Gardens in Glasgow's West End in 1905–6 via two distinct routes: they may have received a word-of-mouth recommendation from their neighbour, F. J. Shand, who, at the same date, commissioned Mackintosh to design a new house in the country, Auchinibert; alternatively, over a decade earlier, tenders were submitted for apparently unexecuted work at Edgehill, home of Mrs Muirhead's mother, also named Robina Spence.

Memberships

In marked contrast to Mackintosh, both Honeyman and Keppie were active in professional and social spheres. For example, Honeyman was a respected scholar, writer and lecturer, actively involved in the Glasgow Archaeological Society, Glasgow Institute of Architects and the Scottish Ecclesiological Society. He was a member of the Royal Institute of British Architects Council between 1879 and 1885, consultant architect to the Glasgow Improvement Trust, and a fellow of the Royal Scottish Academy from 1895. 5 He was also an enthusiastic sailor and a member of several yacht clubs. 6

Keppie was an active public figure, serving as a member of the executive council of the Building Trades Exchange of the City and Districts of Glasgow in the late 1890s; President of the Glasgow Institute of Architects in 1905 and 1919–20; President of the Glasgow Art Club in 1905–6 and 1926–7; Deacon of the Incorporation of Wrights at Glasgow Trades House in 1906; captain of Glasgow Golf Club in 1909; a long-time governor of the Glasgow School of Art and their Chairman in 1930–2; and President of the Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland in 1924. 7

Mackintosh had no known affiliations outside the profession: he became a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1906; and was a governor of the Glasgow School of Art from 1909 to 1915 as the representative of the Glasgow Institute of Architects, serving on the School and Staff Committee and the Library and Materials Committee during that period.

Glasgow Art Club

Honeyman and Keppie were both admitted to Glasgow Art Club as artist members on 11 December 1888, shortly after their partnership was established. 8 From 1886, the Art Club admitted lay members and soon many local businessmen, industrialists, doctors and dentists had been admitted. The Lord Provost of Glasgow and the city's Bailies (senior town councillors) were given automatic membership. 9

This arena certainly seems to have helped JHKM secure new business. No fewer than 30 Club members became clients of the firm: 22 of these were members prior to commissioning the architects; a further two were admitted to the Art Club in the same year as the commission. Five of the clients were artist members; the rest lay members. The artists were Robert Coventry (admitted 1880; president 1909–10 and 1910–11); E. A. Hornel(1886); Archibald Kay (1887; president 1904–5);A. B. McKechnie (1892; president 1915–16, 1916–17 and 1917–18); and E. A. Walton (1878). 10 The lay members were: J. Rankine Andrew (admitted 1903); James Craig Annan (1892) ; Alexander Thomas Assafrey (1895);William Beattie (1898); Walter W. Blackie (1913); E. Hall-Brown (1910) ; John C. Dobbie (1892); Thomas Dunlop(1893) ;Oswald Fergus (1895); Carl Grabowsky(1909);William Greig (1890); Hugh Hopkins (1917); Dr Thomas Kay (1898);Dr John Macintyre (1892); Robert M. Mann (1897);James Raeburn Mann(1898); James H. Mathieson (1897) ; Henry A. Mavor (1895); Dr James Henderson Nicoll (1895); David Perry (1905); John Rennie (1890); Robert Rowat (1892); John James Spencer (1896); Alfred Allison Todd (1892; resigned 1903; readmitted 1915); James Tullis (1886); and William M. Warneuke (1890). 11 Three architects who worked with the firm early in their careers were also Club members.Charles Whitelaw (1903), James Black Fulton(1920) and Andrew Graham Henderson (1920) were all admitted as artist members. 12

Photograph of James Craig AnnanB/W Photograph of Robert M. Mann

B/W Photograph of Alfred Allison ToddB/W Photograph of James Tullis

Westbourne Free Church

Westbourne Free Church in affluent Kelvinside was linked to at least nine JHKM projects between 1889 and 1913. The role of Honeyman's accountant brother, Michael, an elder of the church from 1877, appears to have been significant. A new church at Westbourne Gardens West was built to Honeyman's design in 1880–1. 13 By 1899, Michael Honeyman was convenor of the church's mission committee, and it is not surprising that JHKM won the commission for the church's new Ruchill mission halls, which were designed by Mackintosh. 14 In 1905, JHKM were invited to design a tombstone to former minister Rev. Alexander Orrock Johnston. The firm also carried out work for several members of the congregation at their homes or business premises: for elder (church officer), George Miller, additions and alterations to his house, Lyndhurst, Winton Drive, and his office at 220 St Vincent Street; for former deacon, William Greig, alterations to his shop at 47–53 Glassford Street; and for another former deacon, W. R. M. Church, alterations to his house at 2 Athole Gardens. 15

Like many wealthy late-Victorian church-going West End residents, Michael Honeyman was engaged in charitable activities. 16 In addition to his involvement in the Ruchill mission, he served as a director and treasurer to several reform and educational institutions. John Honeyman carried out work for both of these organisations prior to taking Keppie into partnership, and the firm later returned to make alterations to the Girls' House of Refuge at Maryhill and the Chapelton Reformatory for Girls at Bearsden. 17

Another accountant, W. R. M. Church, also played an active role in charitable work: he served as treasurer to the Trustees of the Houses of Shelter for Females. Honeyman designed their premises in Whitevale Street, Dennistoun, in the late 1870s, and John Honeyman & Keppie returned there twice to make alterations and additions. 18

Mackintosh Clients and Contacts     ^

The small number of surviving letters written by Mackintosh and Margaret Macdonald, together with a few letters and published reminiscences by clients and other contacts, show that Mackintosh and his wife often enjoyed more than business relationships with their clients. Warm friendships developed, founded on shared aesthetic tastes and values. The Mackintoshes' letters to Hermann Muthesius, technical and cultural attaché at the German Embassy in London (1896–1903), and his artist wife Anna, are a particularly rich source. They reveal details of the couples' friendship and everyday lives, as well as the challenges and successes of Mackintosh's life as an architect, and his relationships with clients including Glasgow tea-room entrepreneur Miss Catherine (Kate) Cranston and Viennese mill owner Fritz Waerndorfer. 19 Mackintosh is remembered fondly in the reminiscences of Hamish Davidson, son of William Davidson of Windyhill . He first knew Mackintosh as 'Uncle Toshie' in the 1890s. 20 The recollections of Glasgow publisher Walter W. Blackie describe how the commission of The Hill House came about and the long-standing friendship between client and architect. 21

Scotland

Pioneering businesswoman Miss Catherine Cranston and produce merchant William Davidson were Mackintosh's most loyal clients and supporters. Over two decades, Miss Cranston brought Mackintosh's evolving design style to the general public, employing him at all four of her Glasgow city-centre lunch and tea rooms, at her White Cockade café at the 1911 Scottish Exhibition of National History, Art and Industry, and with her husband John Cochrane, at their home, Hous'hill. Davidson not only commissioned Windyhill, but also later bought 6 Florentine Terrace from Mackintosh, and was probably involved in the earlier commission for the gravestone to his father-in-law, James Reid. Davidson provided invaluable moral and financial support in the difficult years after the Mackintoshes' departure from Glasgow in 1914. Moreover, he was responsible for organising the 1933 Memorial Exhibition to Mackintosh and Macdonald, and for safeguarding the Mackintoshes' estate until his death in 1945.

B/W photograph of William Davidson at the piano B/W Photograph of Catherine Cranston

In the 1950s, publisher Walter Blackie recalled that his chief book designer, Talwin Morris, suggested Mackintosh as designer for his planned new house. Both men became close personal friends of Mackintosh, who later designed Morris's tombstone.

The head of the Glasgow School of Art Francis H. ('Fra') Newbery and his artist wife Jessie Newbery (the couple married in 1889) commissioned furniture and cutlery from Mackintosh. Jessie Newbery later recalled their 40-year friendship with the Mackintoshes: 'With never a rift between us … our lives were closely and affectionately interwoven. We had great pleasure and pride in watching the rise of their promising careers, great admiration for their gifts and characters.' 22 Newbery was an important promoter of Mackintosh's work. His opinion was sought during the adjudication of the anonymously submitted designs for the new Glasgow School of Art building in 1896. 23 He later appointed Mackintosh architect of the Scottish section of the1902 International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art at Turin. Mackintosh carried out commissions at the homes of four members of the extended Rowat family: at 14 KingsboroughGardens and 3 Lilybank Terrace, Glasgow, and at Warriston and Prospecthill House, Paisley.

Relationships with less well-known clients are also significant. In 1905, Mrs Orrock Johnston commissioned a gravestone for her husband, Rev. Alexander Orrock Johnston, former minister of Westbourne Church. Mrs Johnston's choice was probably informed by her knowledge of Mackintosh's Ruchill Halls (linked to her husband's church), and, having lived in Kilmacolm since 1898, she was probably familiar with his gravestone to James Reid in the cemetery there and with Windyhill. Her daughter Lucy later recalled that the commission was given to Mackintosh 'because we wanted something of intrinsic merit; &, incidentally, C. R. Mackintosh was a friend & would do the work with pleasure & sympathy.' 24

Austria and Germany

Mackintosh's commissions and participation in exhibitions in Europe between 1898 and 1905 were facilitated by Hermann Muthesius. He publicised Mackintosh's work, and that of other Glasgow designers, in German decorative arts journals published by Alexander Koch in Darmstadt and Hugo Bruckmann in Munich. Both Koch and Bruckmann were sympathetic to Mackintosh's aesthetic. Mackintosh designed furniture for Bruckmann's Munich flat in around 1898. 25 Muthesius wrote the introduction to Mackintosh's 'House for an Art Lover' competition design portfolio, published by Koch in 1902, included Mackintosh's work in his 1900 book Die englische Baukunst der Gegenwart and his seminal volume of 1904–5, Das englische Haus, and published an extended article on the Mackintoshes in Dekorative Kunst in March 1902. Muthesius also promoted the work of other British architects and designers, including Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott, who wrote to Muthesius in December 1900 to thank him for drawing his attention to the House for an Art Lover competition. 26

Viennese businessman Fritz Waerndorfer, a wealthy owner of cotton-spinning mills in Moravia, was a major collector and supporter of European avant-garde fine and decorative art, and was involved in founding the Wiener Werkstätte in 1903. He became one of Mackintosh's important patrons, purchasing furniture and objects at the Eighth Secession Exhibition in Vienna in 1900 and the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art in Turin in 1902, and commissioning the Mackintoshes to design a music salon in his Vienna home. Waerndorfer and his wife Lili became friends of the Mackintoshes and visited them in Glasgow at least twice. 27

London

Mackintosh and Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh left Glasgow in 1914. Apart from one final commission from Miss Cranston, the Dug Out at the Willow Tea Rooms (1916–17), work came to Mackintosh via three main routes. Edinburgh sociologist and urban planner, Patrick Geddes, whom he had known in Scotland, commissioned several speculative schemes, including a design for buildings in an arcaded street and for a memorial fountain in a public place, which were perhaps connected to a large-scale project of Geddes's for Lucknow, India. 28 Mackintosh designed striking interiors for Northampton model engineer W. J. Bassett-Lowke at his home in Northampton, 78 Derngate, and furniture and decoration for Bassett-Lowke's country cottage. This led to commissions, orchestrated by Bassett-Lowke, for his brother-in-law, Frank Jones, his business partner, William Franklin, and a friend, Sidney Horstmann. 29 In Chelsea, where Mackintosh and Macdonald had settled by 1915, he designed a theatre for their friend the dancer, Margaret Morris, partner of Scottish painter, J. D. Fergusson, and prepared designs for other members of the fine and performing arts community including designs for studios, studio-flats and studio-houses for the Arts League of Service. Many of these ultimately proved to be speculative: only one studio-house, for the painter Harold Squire, was carried out, and this in modified form.

Notes:

1: See Appendix.

2: Free West Church, Greenock; Free Church Manse Helensburgh; Buchanan Memorial Church; Free Church Kirkcudbright; St Michael's Church, Merchiston, Edinburgh; Cathcart Free Church; Cathedral Square United Free Church; Govan Manse; Govan ParishChurch; St Philip's United Free Church, Joppa, Edinburgh; and St Silas Church.

3: David Stark, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co., Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, 2004, pp. 109–22, 126–8.

4: Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1879–80, p. 279.

5: RIBA Council Minutes, vol. 9, 1883–1886.

6: 'John Honeyman', Dictionary of Scottish Architects, 1840–1980, www.scottisharchitects.org.uk [accessed 18 March 2013].

7: 'Notable Glasgow Architect. Retirement of Mr John Keppie R.S.A.', Glasgow Herald, 31 July 1937, p. 13; Glasgow Art Club 1867–1967, Glasgow: The Glasgow Art Club, 1967, pp. 68–9; David Stark, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co., Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, 2004, pp. 226–7; Glasgow City Archive Collection: Catalogue and Book of References. The Glasgow Building Trades Exchange. 1896, T-ARD 17/36; 1898, T-ARD 17/37.

8: Glasgow Art Club Archive: Glasgow Art Club Membership Register, Book 1, Artist Members.

9: Glasgow Art Club Archive: Glasgow Art Club Membership Register, Book 1; Glasgow Art Club 1867–1967, Glasgow: The Glasgow Art Club, 1967, pp. 68–9.

10: Glasgow Art Club Archive: Glasgow Art Club Membership Register, Book 1, Artist Members.

11: For professions, see appendices below. Sir James Fleming (admitted 1892), Leonard Gow (1886) and Sir Renny Watson (1886) were never personal clients but all served on educational, health and charity committees which awarded the firm commissions. Glasgow Art Club Archive: Glasgow Art Club Membership Register, Book 1, Lay Members.

12: Glasgow Art Club Archive: Glasgow Art Club Membership Register, Book 1, Lay Members.

13: Elizabeth Williamson, Anne Riches and Malcolm Higgs, Buildings of Scotland: Glasgow, London: Penguin, 1990, p. 316.

14: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Westbourne Free Church Year Book 1899–1900, CH3/1239/1.

15: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Westbourne Free Church Year Book 1899–1900, CH3/1239/1; 1900–1, CH3/1239/2; 1901–2, CH3/1239/3.

16: Gordon R. Urquhart, A Notable Ornament. Lansdowne Church: An Icon of Victorian Glasgow, Glasgow: Four Acres Charitable Trust / Glasgow City Heritage Trust, 2011, pp. 35–6; Stana Nenadic, 'The Victorian Middle Classes', in Irene Maver, ed., Glasgow. II: 1830–1912, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996, pp. 288–91.

17: David Stark, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co., Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, 2004, pp. 92–7; 'Glasgow Reformatory for Girls', www.theglasgowstory.com [accessed 7 March 2013]; 'Glasgow Magdalene Institution', www.theglasgowstory.com [accessed 7 March 2013].

18: Glasgow Post Office Directory, 1896–7, appendix p. 136; 1900–1, appendix p. 157; David Stark, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Co., Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing, 2004 , pp. 96–7; Elizabeth Williamson, Anne Riches and Malcolm Higgs, Buildings of Scotland: Glasgow, London: Penguin, 1990, p. 448.

19: Berlin, Werkbundarchiv, Museum der Dinge: Hermann Muthesius Estate, letter from Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh to Anna Muthesius c. Christmas 1904, D250.

20: Hamish R. Davidson, 'Memories of Charles Rennie Mackintosh', Scottish Art Review, 11, 1968, pp. 2–5, 29.

21: Walter W. Blackie, 'Memories of Charles Rennie Mackintosh – II', Scottish Art Review, 11, no. 4, 1968, pp. 6–11.

22: Jessie Newbery to Mrs Randolph Schwabe, 12 January 1933, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 55440.

23: Glasgow School of Art Archives: Secretary's and Treasurer's letters, SEC 2, letter from E. R. Catterns to Renny Watson, 27 October 1896.

24: University of Toronto, Robarts Library: Thomas Howarth papers, letter from Lucy Johnston to Thomas Howarth, 30 May 1945, B2000–0002/035(01).

25: Roger Billcliffe, Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Complete Furniture, Furniture Drawings and Interior Designs, Moffat, Dumfriesshire: Cameron & Hollis, 4th edn, 2009 pp. 47–9.

26: Berlin, Werkbundarchiv, Museum der Dinge: Hermann Muthesius Estate, letter from M. H. Baillie Scott to Hermann Muthesius, 31 December 1900.

27: Berlin, Werkbundarchiv, Museum der Dinge: Hermann Muthesius Estate, letters from Mackintosh to Hermann Muthesius, 12 July 1900; 6 August 1902; Roger Billcliffe and Peter Vergo, 'Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Austrian Art Revival', Burlington Magazine, 119, 1977, pp. 739–46; Peter Vergo, 'Fritz Waerndorfer and Josef Hoffmann', Burlington Magazine, 125, July 1983, pp. 402–10; Hanna Egger, ed., Ein Moderne Nachmittg, Vienna: Bohlau Press for the Museum für Angewandte Kunst, 2000; Elana Shapira, 'Modernism and Jewish Identity in Early Twentieth Century Vienna: Fritz Waerndorfer and his House for an Art Lover', Studies in the Decorative Arts, 13, Spring-Summer 2006, pp. 52–92.

28: Volker M. Welter, 'Arcades for Lucknow: Patrick Geddes, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Reconstruction of the City', Architectural History, 42, 1999, pp. 316–32.

29: Roger Billcliffe, Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Complete Furniture, Furniture Drawings and Interior Designs, Moffat, Dumfriesshire: Cameron & Hollis, 4th edn, 2009, pp. 286–92.

Appendices

These lists present a summary of the client profile generated by the project. Information on professions has been taken from the P.O. directories in the year(s) of the commission. Partner is assumed when a person is described in the directory as 'of' a business. Biographies for many can be found in The Catalogue Browse section: People.

Individual Clients

Project numberClient nameProfession
M084A. T. Assafreychocolatier
M236William Beattiebaker
M204Finlay Bellbutcher
M140James Cairdplasterer (own business; provost of Partick)
M002William Middleton Campbellsugar merchant; shipping
M086John Christiesteel
M222William R. M. Churchchartered accountant
M051Stewart Clarkpartner, Clark & Co., Anchor Thread Works, Paisley
M155Robert Coventryartist
M050John Crombiephysician
M283George Cuthbertsonpartner in ship and insurance broker (Thomas Skinnner & Co.)
M189William Davidsonproduce broker
M006Alexander Dennistoun private income
M238Archibald F. Donaldsonpartner in shipping company, Donaldson Bros.
M183Bernard Doultonmechanical engineer
M247Thomas Dunlopship owner and insurance agent; grain merchant; Lord Provost of Glasgow 1914–17
M162T. B. Fotheringhamtimber merchant; door and window manufacturer
M010F. C. Gardinerpartner, ship owner and broker (James Gardiner & Co)
M013Mrs Hester Tucker Geilswife of army major
M244Carl Grabowskyiron and coal export merchant
M232William & Mrs Grahamchartered accountant
M292R. D. Graybuilder
M252William Greigpharmacist
M049Archibald W. Hamiltonretired East India merchant
M237David Hamiltonwine and spirit merchant
M241James Hardyphysician
M142A. Campbell Holm[e]sartist
M007John Honeymanarchitect
M035Hugh Hopkins & Hugh Cuthbertson Hopkins booksellers (Keppie's uncle and cousin)
M293E. A. Hornelartist
M079; M135E. Walter Joynsonsilk merchant
M148Archibald Kayartist
M295Thomas Kayphysician
M040Robert Kirkwoodphysician
M261William York MacGregorartist
M161Mrs Sarah McGuirelandlady
M108John Macintyrephysician & surgeon
M234Robert Maclarenpartner/owner of Eglinton Foundry
M146; M308Robert M. Mannpartner in large drapery firm
M150James Raeburn Mannshipping agent, City Line
M181Alexander Masseyprovisions merchant
M024Thomas; James MathiesonSaracen Tool Works
M015William C. Maughanretired chartered accountant; local historian
M298Henry Mavorelectrical engineer (own business)
M290; M309; M289Alexander Balfour McKechnie & Mrs Helen McKechnie artist
M297R. A. McLeanstock broker (son-in-law of Finlay Smith, s221)
M063;M116Alexander; George Millerpartners in West Africa merchants (palm oil)
M008; M031Robert Millerpartner, tar, oil and chemical merchant and manufacturer (George Miller & Co.; James Miller, Son & Co.); last provost of Hillhead
M273David S. Mortonpaint and varnish merchant and manufacturer
M218Robert Muirprofessor of pathology, University of Glasgow
M257James Muirheadlawyer
M128Thomas Nelsoncattle merchant
M265James H. Nicollphysician and surgeon
M170Charles C. S. Parsonsstock broker
M277David Perrymanufacturing chemist
M211Alexander Philipsolicitor
M279William Cunningham Rankinmanager at Royal Insurance Co.
M326John Rennieretired East India merchant
M042Arthur Rickardsliving on own means; captain
M278James Robertsonlawyer
M076Laurence Robertsonaccountant and stockbroker
M267Sigurd Røedpartner in ship broker (with J. H. McNair's brother)
M286George Romeplasterer (own business)
M126W. J. Yorke Scarlettlaird of Gigha; captain
M098; M242; M198James Simpsonpartner in cabinetmaker and upholster; warehouse
M231Finlay Smithtobacco merchant and manufacturer
M165William Smithmill owner and cotton manufacturer
M087Mrs Robina SpencerSpencer family were West India merchants
M023Ninian Bannantyne Stewartpartner, Stewart & McDonald, textile warehouse and manufacturer
M280George Stoutship broker
M081William Crawford Stirling-Stuartlaird of Castlemilk
M270E. A. Waltonartist
M307W. Warneukephotographer
M109; M149Mrs Youngunknown

Institutional Clients

Project numberClient name
M253Abbey Close United Free Church, Paisley
M039Abercorn Parish Church
M022Aberfoyle Parish School Board
M003Anderson's College Medical School governors
M227T. & R. Annan & Sons
M300Apex Motor Engineering Co.
M056; M055Association for the Promotion of Art and Music in Glasgow
M229Auchterarder Parish Church
M041; M020Bank of Scotland
M132Belfast Corporation
M250Belhaven Church
M074Bellahouston Church
M133Biggar Parish Church/Rev. William Grant Duncan
M099Bluevale Church
M176Brechin Cathedral restoration committee
M080Bridge of Allan Quoad Sacra Church
M311British Dyewood & Chemical Co.
M317The Bowes Museum
M096Buchanan Memorial Church
M215Cameron Parish Church
M053Canal Boatmen's Friend Society
M061Carrick Church
M151Cathcart Free Church
M193Cathedral Square United Free Church
M127Chapelton Reformatory for Girls
M017Craigrownie Church
M082Dean Parish Parish Church
M048East Kilbride Parish Church
M205Eglinton Foundry
M018Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. Ltd
M066Foote, Swan & Co.
M043Gargunnock Parish Church
M122Girls' House of Refuge
M195Glasgow & West of Scotland Technical College
M030Glasgow Cathedral
M266; M319; M320Glasgow Corporation
M089; M158Glasgow School Board
M083Gourock School Board
M172Govan Parish Church
M190Govan Parish Church
M129Grand Hotel, Sauchiehall Street
M322Grant & Watson, outfitters
M014Greenock Free West Church
M019Greenock Sugar Exchange
M315Greenock West Parish Church
M145Hall-Brown, Buttery & Co.
M060Helensburgh West Free Church
M248Henderson's Trustees
M313Hengler's Circus
M251Henry & Carruthers
M021Alexander Hogg & Co., sugar merchants
M104House of Shelter for Females
M264Institute of Engineers and Shipbuilders
M044Iona Cathedral trustees
M282Kelvinside Academy
M294Kelvinside United Free Church
M138Kilmacolm Parish Church
M123Kilmadock Parish Church
M100Kirkcudbright Free Church
M141Kirkintilloch School Board
M101Largo Parish Church
M268Lenzie United Free Church
M328Lochwinnoch Auld Kirk
M052Logie School Board
M045Loretto School
M217Mavor & Coulson Engineering Co. Ltd
M047; M075; M088; M090; M093; M092; M113; M114; M194; M321; M324James McMichael & Son
M139Nairn Parish Church
M016North Berwick Free Church
M266Northern Accident Insurance Co.; St Andrew's Ambulance Association
M077Old Kilpatrick Parish Board
M312George Outram & Co.
M106Paisley Technical School board of directors
M272Parkhead Savings Bank
M173Patriotic Assurance Co.
M107Perth Free West Church
M124Pettigrew & Stephens
M318Pitlochry Hydro Hotel
M058Prestwick Free Church
M325Provincial Committee for Teacher Training
M200; M214Pullar & Co.
M110Queen Margaret College hall of residence Ltd
M180Queen Margaret College Settlement Association
M246; M245Queen Margaret College, University of Glasgow
M220Queens Park West United Free Church
M304Robert Rome & Son
M284Rothesay Parish United Free Church
M032Row Parish Church
M117St David's Church Kirkintilloch
M095St Michael's Church Linlithgow
M118St Michael's Church Merchiston
M112St Paul's Church mission
M269St Philip's United Free Church Portobello
M287St Silas Episcopal Church
M078St Thomas Wesleyan Methodist Church
M130Saracen Tool Works
M097Skelmorlie School Board
M281Theatre Royal
M164; M213University of Glasgow
M136Victoria Infirmary governors
M166Westbourne Free Church
M285Western Baths
M144West of Scotland Furniture Manufacturing Co.
M036Wylie & Lochhead

Clients for Mackintosh projects (categories 1 and 2)

Project numberClient nameProfession
M159H. L. Anderson & Co.painters and decorators
M212Architecture and Craft of the New Style exhibition, Moscow 
M057Association for the Promotion of Art and Music in Glasgow 
M028Belhaven Church 
M207Walter W. Blackiepublisher
M337Arthur Cadogan Bluntartist
M249Robert Bowesbookseller
M235Bridge of Allan Parish church  
M137British & Foreign Aerated Water Co. Ltd 
M344Florence Brooks[not yet known]
M239Richard Brooman-Whitegentleman (living on own means)
M152John Calderwoodphysician
M038City of Glasgow Improvement Trust 
M199; M271; M316Hugh Brown Collinsengineer
M073Corporation of Manchester 
M221; M179; M258; M310; M219Catherine Cranstontea room entrepreneur
M243Catherine Cranston; John Cochranetea-room entrepreneur; tube works/iron foundry
M182Daily Record newspaper 
M189William Davidsonproduce broker
M206James J. Dobbiechemist; university chair; curator; govt scientist
M224Dresdener Werkstätte für Handwerkskunst 
M152Oswald Fergusdentist
M334Fitzgerald familymilitary
M197Alexander Frewcivil engineer
M329; M330; M331Patrick Geddessociologist and urban planner
M071Glasgow Art Club 
M153Glasgow International Exhibition Association 
M033Glasgow Police Commissions; friends and family of deceased 
M105; M233Glasgow School Board 
M134; M185The Glasgow School of Art 
M167Gourock Parish Church 
M223Alfred Grenander; A. S. Ballarchitect; furniture maker
M275Guild of Aid 
M034James Hamiltoncarting contractor (Mackintosh's cousin)
M091Helensburgh Conservative Club 
M202Isabella Wylie Hill(wife of Robert s382)
M005Robert Wylie Hillwarehouseman (husband of Isabella s374)
M335E. O. Hoppéphotographer
M260Hutcheson's Girls' Grammar School 
M201International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art, Turin  
M255Mrs Amy Johnstonwife of minister
M288Lady Artists' Club 
M191Alexander Kochpublisher
M276Archibald Campbell Lawrie advocate; historian
M203Liverpool Cathedral Committee 
M333W. J. Bassett Lowkemodel engineer
M262Charles Rennie Mackintosh 
M205Robert Maclaren & Co.Eglinton Foundry 
M230Peter Macphersondraper; tailor, grocer
M069Thomas Masonmason
M314Alice Talwin Morriswife of designer
M343Margaret Morrisdancer and teacher
M259William; Alexander Murdochdistiller; wine and spirit merchant
M163National Bank of Scotland 
M072George Outram & Co.publisher of Glasgow Herald
M187Pettigrew & Stephensdepartment store
M125Free St Matthew's Church 
M094Queen Margaret College, University of Glasgow 
M303Queen's University Belfast 
M186Rae Ltdphotographer
M111James Raeburn's Trustees 
M323William Ritchiehairdresser
M256Miss Edith Rowatliving on own means
M291Thomas Rowattextile manufacturer
M102Royal Insurance Company 
M169Westbourne Free Church 
M254Francis J. Shandmanager, Nobel's Explosives
M184Francis Smithfurniture maker
M064Skelmorlie Parish Church 
M338Harold Squireartist
M345Alexander Stuart-Hillartist
M209Alfred A. Toddchartered accountant
M196James Tullisleather belt manufacturer
M188Vienna Secession 
M208Fritz Waerndorfercotton-spinning mill owner
M226Trustees of the late Dr Walker 
M274Wilkinson, Heywood & Clark Ltdpaint and varnish manufacturer
M341Francis Derwent Woodsculptor