Queen's Cross Church

M125 Queen's Cross Church

Address: 870, Garscube Road, Glasgow G20 7EL
Date: 1896–9
Client: Free St Matthew's Congregation
Authorship: Authorship category 1 (Mackintosh) (Mackintosh)

Colour photograph of W. side of tower, Queen's Cross Church

Origins

Queen's Cross Church has its origins in a mission of Free St Matthew's Church in Bath Street, in the centre of Glasgow. In 1886 St Matthew's opened new mission premises in Doncaster Street, about 200 metres S. of the eventual site of Queen's Cross Church. 1 By 1896, the population of the surrounding Springbank area had increased dramatically, with 'whole streets of fully occupied tenements now covering spaces which but the other day appeared to be "no man's land".' 2 This was part of a much wider surge in the growth of the city, which led the Free Church Presbytery to plan an ambitious programme of 'church-planting'; and it was as part of this larger building programme that Free St Matthew's undertook to replace the Springbank mission with a fully-fledged church. 3

A building committee was set up, and financial support was promised by one of the elders, David McLean. To secure a suitable site it was necessary to buy a large plot on the N. side of Garscube Road, only a portion of which would be used for the church. This was done by committee member Peter McKissock, a building contractor, who then sold the required part to St Matthew's. 4 The site was prominent, but hemmed in by pre-existing buildings.

McKissock and fellow committee-member, James McMichael junior, of James McMichael & Son, were given the task of identifying 'a competent architect' for the new church. 5 James McMichael & Son, house factors, were acting at the time as letting agents for offices in John Honeyman & Keppie's new Glasgow Herald Building, and had already employed the practice on a number of modest domestic projects. McKissock meanwhile had recently undertaken the mason work for two of their more important buildings, Anderson's College Medical School and the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd. This may explain why McKissock and McMichael proposed John Keppie for the Queen's Cross job, though it is interesting that they did not select his partner, the church specialist John Honeyman. Keppie made a sketch showing the church occupying the E. part of the ground, 6 but ultimately it was decided to build on the W. part, at the corner of Springbank Street. Revised plans were made during April 1897, and approved by the Glasgow Dean of Guild Court on 10 June. 7

Mackintosh was only an assistant in the office at this date, but it has never been doubted that he was responsible for the executed design, which shows an individualism not found in the work of either Honeyman or Keppie. When the church was included in the architecture section of the Glasgow International Exhibition 1901 (192), the architects were named as 'John Honeyman, R. S. A.; John Keppie, I. A.; Charles R. McIntosh [sic]'. 8 This public acknowledgement of Mackintosh before he had been made a partner in the firm is all the more significant because it was presumably endorsed by the convener of the Exhibition's Architecture Sub-Committee, who was John Keppie.

There are many differences between the drawings approved by the Glasgow Dean of Guild Court and the church as built. Most strikingly, the drawings show the tower with a Renaissance balustraded parapet, and the transept windows with Tudor-arched heads, instead of the sinuous reverse ogee dripmoulds which Mackintosh eventually gave them. Mackintosh's perspective drawing, exhibited in 1898, is closer to the finished building than those made for the Dean of Guild Court, but there are still significant differences, indicating that the design continued to evolve during the course of construction. For instance, in the perspective drawing there is a dwarf wall between the transept and porch; the flying buttress has a triangular gable; the aisle windows are square- not ogee-headed; and the top of the tower has a string-course level with the head of the belfry window, with a solid parapet above.

Exterior

The exterior is built of red Locharbriggs stone, stugged, with smooth dressings. 9 The style is essentially Perpendicular, but with many unhistorical details, and was described by the Glasgow Herald as a 'free treatment of late Gothic'. 10

The church is basically a single vessel lying parallel to Garscube Road, with a square chancel at the Springbank Street end. From the outside, however, it is the variety and massing of the subsidiary parts that predominates. A low, narrow passage aisle links the S.W. corner tower to the double-height S.E. porch, and there is a shallow, twin-gabled transept containing a gallery next to the tower. A single flying buttress over the aisle indicates the position of one of four tie-beams in the roof, the thrust of the other three being absorbed by the porch and transept cross-walls (on the N. side, hidden from the street, all four beams are carried on bold, square buttresses that project through the roof at eaves level). A polygonal turret in Springbank Street gives access to the vestry on the N. side of the chancel, and from there via a spiral stair to the first-floor session room. Next to this turret, a further entrance leads via a yard on the N. side of the church to the Hall at the N.E. corner.

Colour photograph of Queen's Cross church from S.E.Colour photograph of flying buttress at Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of buttresses on N. side of Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of detail of Springbank Street elevation of Queen's Cross Church

All these disparate parts are pulled together by the square tower at the corner of Springbank Street. It tapers for the upper third of its height and has a polygonal stair turret embedded in its W. face. These features, and the clasping buttresses at its base, are derived from the medieval tower of All Saints church at Merriott, Somerset, which Mackintosh had sketched on a visit in 1895. 11

Colour photograph of tower of Queen's Cross Church from S.W. Colour photograph of sketch by Mackintosh of Merriot church, Somerset, c. 1895

The window tracery is mostly without cusping, and especially in the chancel and tower it combines the emphatic verticals of the 15th century with the looping shapes of certain early 16th-century Scottish windows. 12 The large chancel window is centred on a heart motif, an idea Mackintosh may have taken from the 14th-century W. window of York Minster which he sketched around this time, 13 though the Queen's Cross design is far from being a direct imitation of medieval tracery.

Colour photograph of tower window at Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of W. window at Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of sketch by Mackintosh of W. window, York Minster, 1896/8

The upper transept windows have dripmoulds in the shape of reverse ogee arches, a motif used widely by Mackintosh around this time, but not characteristic of medieval Gothic architecture.

Colour photograph of transept window at Queen's Cross Church

For the subsidiary entrances in Springbank Street, he used completely un-Gothic forms. The upper edge of the lintel over the vestry door is drawn downwards into a spout-like shape, a feature that recurs at the Daily Record building and elsewhere, while the Hall door has a segmental hood derived from 18th-century classical examples, carried out in improbably thin stonework.

Colour photograph of Springbank Street entrance to Hall at Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of vestry door at Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of detail of Hall entrance at Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of detail of vestry entrance at Queen's Cross Church

Stonecarving and metalwork

The carving above the S.E. porch door represents a stylised, elongated tree, its trunk rising like a fat mullion between a pair of two-light windows, with a leaf and the disembodied head of a bird at its base. Trees and birds occur often in Mackintosh's decorative work, but in this case they may have an unusually precise meaning. The carving seems to be a fusion of the emblem of the Free Church of Scotland (the burning bush, as seen by Moses in the Old Testament Book of Exodus) with that of the United Presbyterian Church (the dove and olive branch from the Old Testament story of Noah). 14 The Free Church agreed to enter into negotiations with the United Presbyterian Church in 1897, leading to the union of the two bodies as the United Free Church of Scotland in October 1900, and the combining of their respective symbols. 15 On the drawing submitted to the Dean of Guild in 1897, the porch had a single window with a small carved panel of the burning bush above. It seems likely that Mackintosh revised the design to reflect the subsequent union of the churches.

Colour photograph of S.E. porch of Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of carving on S.E. porch of Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of detail of carving on S.E. porch of Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of detail of carving on S.E. porch of Queen's Cross Church

Mackintosh's perspective drawing shows carved figures at the angles of the tower's stair turret and a panel of ornament above the louvred belfry opening. Unworked blocks of stone at these points confirm that decoration was planned but not carried out. The drawing also suggests that the empty niches on the porch and flying buttress were meant to hold statues. In March 1899 it was reported to the Deacon's Court of Free St Matthew's that 'the Architect is of opinion that the actual expenditure [on the new church at Springbank] will not exceed the estimates. Some slight alterations had been given effect to, but these were rather on the side of economy.' 16 Whether these alterations included the omission of decoration – and whether this was for aesthetic or financial reasons – is not clear from the documentation.

Colour photograph of W. side of tower, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of tower of Queen's Cross Church from S.

George Adam & Son supplied 'wrot iron finials' – presumably including the one on the tower – in April 1899. The following November they were paid for a 'lamp at passage'. This probably refers to the wrought-iron overthrow between the E. end of the church and the neighbouring tenement. In January 1902 it was decided to 'consult with the architect' about installing railings at the doors and other exterior recesses of the church, and Adam's tender for this work was accepted in April. 17 The railings and gates were mostly removed in 1984–5, but they survive at the Springbank Street entrance to the Hall.

Colour photograph of gates and overthrow at E. end of Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of Springbank Street gates, Queen's Cross Church

The double doors have broad strap hinges which meet in the middle, resembling a continuous band, with only a slight peak to mark where the two leaves touch.

Colour photograph of tower door of Queen's Cross Church

Interior

Queen's Cross church belongs to a wider development in Presbyterian church design, which from the 1880s onwards moved away from galleried auditoria intended simply for preaching and towards a more spiritually resonant architecture of worship. In this, the Presbyterians were following the lead of the ecclesiological movement in the Church of England, which since the 1840s had promoted the study of medieval church architecture and furnishings and the imitation of appropriate historical examples. Some of these characteristics can already be seen in Mackintosh's student design for a Presbyterian church of c. 1889. His sketching tours of Scottish and English medieval churches, and his interest in the work of contemporary English Gothic Revival architects, bore further fruit at Queen's Cross.

Instead of a central pulpit – the traditional Presbyterian focus of attention – there is a chancel containing the communion table. It is set apart, raised on steps and enclosed behind a low wall, by a lofty arch and 'rood beam'. Galleries are confined to the E. end and transept, leaving the body of the church free from columns and causing the Glasgow Herald to describe it as 'somewhat novel in plan, the whole of the area being roofed over without obstruction'. 18 The benches are divided by a central aisle, a feature associated with ceremonial processions and generally avoided in earlier Presbyterian churches.

Computer assisted drawing  of ground-floor planColour photograph of interior of Queen's Cross Church looking W.Colour photograph of interior of Queen's Cross Church looking E.

The walls are plastered above a wood-panelled dado, with exposed stone quoins around the chancel arch, windows and other openings. The vaulted wooden ceiling with its four steel tie-beams is closely modelled on Holy Trinity, Latimer Road, London, a church designed in 1886 by Richard Norman Shaw (1831–1912), one of the architects singled out for praise by Mackintosh in his 1893 lecture on Architecture. 19 At Queen's Cross the riveted steel is exposed, but the drawings approved by the Dean of Guild show the beams clad in timber, as Shaw had done. It is not clear if Mackintosh omitted the timber to save money, or because he preferred the 'honest' look of unadorned structure.

Colour photograph of roof, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of tie beam, Queen's Cross ChurchB/W photograph of interior of Holy Trinity, Latimer Road (Harrow Mission church), 'The Architect', 25 October 1889, pp. 238–9, ill. no. 157

The chancel has an open roof of unusually elaborate construction, despite being largely hidden by the chancel arch. Its purlins are carried on shallow arched braces with square pendant ornaments, resting on corbels. Where the rafters meet the wall, they are gripped by pairs of timber brackets, a variation on the treatment of the roof of the central hall at Martyrs Public School.

Colour photograph of chancel roof, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of chancel roof, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of chancel roof, Queen's Cross Church

The S.W. transept gallery projects into the body of the church on deep, closely-set joists. Its design may have been influenced by the illustration of an Old Inn at Mishima in E. S. Morse's Japanese Homes and their Surroundings, but at Queen's Cross the gallery front is panelled with vertical boards, almost covering the ends of the joists and finishing in a series of scallops and pendant ornaments. 20 The E. gallery front is treated in the same way, with the same frank expression of timber construction underneath. It rests on round wooden columns with square capitals, chamfered on the underside.

Colour photograph of S. W. gallery, Queen's Cross ChurchPhotograph of illustration from Morse, 'Japanese Homes and their Surroundings', 1886Colour photograph of front of E. gallery, Queen's Cross Church

Sturdy square stone piers with softly rounded corners divide the S. aisle from the body of the church. They are quite un-Gothic, and resemble the piers in the ground-floor arcade of Salmon, Son & Gillespie's exactly contemporary Mercantile Chambers in Bothwell Street, Glasgow. Each face of the square capitals is carved with a circular ornament incorporating stylised leaf forms.

Colour photograph of capital, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of capital, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of Mercantile Chambers arcadeColour photograph of Mercantile Chambers capital

The piers are positioned to bear the weight of the tie-beams, and are therefore unevenly spaced (in the case of the one below the transept gallery, a square cast-iron column transfers the weight from beam to pier). At each end of the aisle a dog-leg stair with semicircular half-landing – expressed externally – gives access to one of the galleries. The W. stair has one of Mackintosh's characteristic screen-like balustrades, composed of boards with simple pierced decoration.

Colour photograph of S. W. gallery, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of stairs to S. W. gallery, Queen's Cross Church

Furnishings

The original arrangement of the chancel is not certain, but the drawings approved by the Glasgow Dean of Guild Court show double rows of choir stalls on each side, facing inwards to the communion table. Barely a year after the church opened, this arrangement was already being reconsidered: the choir wished 'to return to their former places', and the Deacons' Court agreed 'that the partitions in front be removed with a view to the better accommodation of the choir'. 21 In December 1903, the Court agreed to 'the removal of the fixed seats on the choir platform' and their replacement with chairs. 22 It may have been at the same time that the choir was raised by the addition of an extra wooden step on top of the three stone ones. 23 The removal of the fixed seats changed the appearance of the panelling behind, which Mackintosh presumably intended to read as a simplified version of the high-backed canopies above medieval choir stalls. At the top of the panelling is a frieze with low-relief carvings of long-stemmed leaves under a shallow cornice. In the centre of the W. wall the carvings break forward as brackets, and the cornice becomes deeper, forming a reredos behind the communion table.

Colour photograph of detail of reredos, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of chancel panelling, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of communion table, Queen's Cross Church

The beam spanning the chancel arch – not strictly speaking a rood beam, since it does not support a cross – is a reconstruction installed in 1990, based on photographs of the original which was removed in the 1950s. 24

Colour photograph of rood beam, Queen's Cross Church

Mackintosh provided space in the tower for an organ with openings into the chancel and the body of the church. The drawings approved by the Glasgow Dean of Guild Court show the instrument with an elaborate case including figures of trumpeting angels, but it was never carried out.

Against the N. jamb of the chancel arch is the oak pulpit, each facet of its curved front carved with bird and leaf (or tree) motifs. This may be the 'desk and seat' for which the Bennet Furnishing Company was paid in February 1900. Its distinctive inward-leaning sides recall the stone pulpit at St Clare's R.C. church, Sefton Park, Liverpool, a building of 1889 by another of Mackintosh's heroes, Leonard Stokes (1858–1925). 25 In the S. jamb is a piscina, a canopied niche containing a basin for washing sacred vessels, often found near the altar in a medieval church. Whether it served a practical purpose at Queen's Cross is unclear.

Colour photograph of pulpit, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of pulpit, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of detail of pulpit, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of detail of pulpit, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of piscina, Queen's Cross Church

The windows are mostly filled with clear glass in quarries.

Colour photograph of N. windows, Queen's Cross Church

Mackintosh's perspective drawing shows stained glass with figures of haloed saints, but the only stained glass he actually supplied is confined to the large E. and W. windows, and is non-figurative. The heart motif in the W. window is filled with blue glass, and in the E. window the central light contains a green rectilinear shape, perhaps an extremely simplified tree. There is stained glass in several internal doors, for instance those leading to the vestry and the S.W. gallery stairs, consisting of three narrow upright lights with a kidney-shaped panel of red glass above.

Colour photograph of W. window, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of E. window, Queen's Cross ChurchColour photograph of stained glass in door to S. W. gallery, Queen's Cross Church

Hall

The Hall, which adjoins the N.E. corner of the church, is a rectangular top-lit space with an open timber roof and a stage at one end. The roof trusses have pierced decoration, and pairs of flat, upright timbers clasping the tie-beams, like the trusses over the stairs at Martyrs Public School. The lower walls are panelled.

Colour photograph of Hall roof trusses, Queen's Cross Church

Alterations and conservation

In 1944, the rear five rows of movable pews were taken out and the timber used to construct a wooden screen in front of the columns supporting the E. gallery, dividing the area below the gallery from the body of the church. The very back pew is attached to the E. wall, and survives in its original position. The screen, designed by the pioneering Mackintosh scholar Thomas Howarth, is a very early instance of the revival of Mackintosh's style. In 2006 it was dismantled and reconstructed behind the columns, thus restoring the original visual relationship between columns and gallery. 26

The final service was held in the church in March 1976. 27 Having leased the building as its headquarters in 1977, the Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society began a programme of refurbishment. This included extensive repairs to external stonework in 1984–5, followed by internal redecoration in 1989–90, when all the woodwork was returned to its original dark grey finish. 28 After buying the church in 1998, the Society employed Simpson & Brown of Edinburgh in 2005 to carry out a major conservation programme. 29 This involved the re-roofing of subsidiary spaces, including the Hall, where new vents modelled on an example at the Glasgow School of Art were installed; the construction of a new roof over the E. gallery stair; stone repairs carried out using stone from the Corncockle quarry near Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire, and hydraulic lime mortar; repair of all the leaded glazing; repositioning of the screen under the E. gallery; and improvements to services. 30

A report on the condition of Queen's Cross Church was produced as part of the Mackintosh Buildings Survey, led by the Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society and carried out between 2015 and 2016. 31

Critical reception

Mackintosh's perspective was exhibited at the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts in 1898 (250) and illustrated in Academy Architecture. 32 'The design ... by Messrs Honeyman & Keppie', wrote the critic of the Glasgow Herald, 'is obscured by the singular character of the drawing, which arrests and holds attention, but without full approval.' 33

The day before the church opened, the Herald published a short description. 34 It is surprising for the even tone in which it refers to some of the building's more unorthodox features: 'The glazing of the church is of clear quarries, a judicious use of antique coloured glass giving a pleasing contrast. The panelling on the walls of the choir is elaborate, and in portions richly carved. It is designed in a free treatment of late Gothic.' As well as the novelty of the uninterrupted plan, the paper also remarked on the inward-sloping sides – or 'entasis' – of the tower. It noted that provision had been made for an organ, but that the instrument was not to be installed for the present, and it mentioned that the interior was to be lit by 'Scott-Thorpe lights of special design'. The architects were named as 'Messrs John Honeyman & Keppie'. The building was also one of the projects exhibited by the practice at the Glasgow International Exhibition 1901 (192). The drawing they showed (probably Mackintosh's perspective) was described by the Architectural Review as 'remarkable', and the same publication described the overall contribution of John Honeyman & Keppie to the Exhibition as 'extremely noticeable work'. 35

Notes:

1: G. E. Philip, Free St Matthew's Church, Glasgow: A Record of Fifty-five Years, Glasgow: David Bryce & Son, 1898, p. 126; Glasgow Herald, 27 March 1886, p. 3.

2: G. E. Philip, Free St Matthew's Church, Glasgow: A Record of Fifty-five Years, Glasgow: David Bryce & Son, 1898, p. 155.

3: Robert Howie, 'Glasgow church-planting scheme', The Free Church of Scotland Monthly, 1 December 1895, pp. 294–5; Glasgow City Archives Collection: Minutes of Deacons' Court of Free St Matthew's Church, CH3/971/17, 9 June 1896.

4: Glasgow Herald, 23 June 1898, p. 6.

5: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Minutes of Deacons' Court of Free St Matthew's Church, CH3/971/17, 7 December 1896.

6: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Minutes of Deacons' Court of Free St Matthew's Church, CH3/971/17, 7 December 1896.

7: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Glasgow Dean of Guild Court, Register of Inspections, D-OPW 25/63, p. 140.

8: International Exhibition Glasgow 1901: Official Catalogue of the Fine Art Section, Glasgow: Charles P. Watson, [1901], p. 123.

9: The stone is identified as having come from the Locharbriggs quarry, Dumfriesshire, in the Glasgow Herald, 9 September 1899, p. 10. However, analysis by the British Geological Survey c. 2005 indicated that the original source may have been the Corncockle quarry, also in Dumfriesshire.

10: Glasgow Herald, 9 September 1899, p. 10.

11: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 41071.

12: Richard Fawcett, Scottish Medieval Churches: Architecture and Furnishings, Stroud: Tempus Publishing Ltd, 2002, pp. 125–6.

13: The Hunterian, University of Glasgow: GLAHA 53013/39.

14: William McMillan, Scottish Symbols: Royal, National & Ecclesiastical, Paisley: Alexander Gardner, [1916], p. 230.

15: Nigel M. de S. Cameron, ed., Dictionary of Scottish Church History & Theology, Downes Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993, pp. 836, 840; William McMillan, Scottish Symbols: Royal, National & Ecclesiastical, Paisley: Alexander Gardner, [1916], p. 230.

16: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Minutes of Deacons' Court of Free St Matthew's Church, CH3/971/17, 6 March 1899.

17: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Queen's Cross Free Church Deacons' Court minutes, CH3/1346/3, 9 January 1902; 3 April 1902.

18: Glasgow Herald, 9 September 1899, p. 10.

19: Andrew Saint, Richard Norman Shaw, New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 2010, pp. 315–7; Charles Rennie Mackintosh, 'Architecture', in Pamela Robertson, ed., Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Architectural Papers, Wendlebury, Oxon: White Cockade in association with the Hunterian Art Gallery, 1990, pp. 201–11. Even if Mackintosh did not know Holy Trinity at first hand, he would have seen illustrations such as those reproduced in the Architect, 18 October 1889, pp. 222–3, and 25 October 1889, pp. 238–9.

20: Edward Sylvester Morse, Japanese Homes and their Surroundings, London: Trübner & Co., 1886, fig. 51.

21: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Queen's Cross Free Church Deacons' Court minutes, CH3/1346/3, 7 October 1900; 15 November 1900.

22: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Queen's Cross Free Church Deacons' Court minutes, CH3/1346/3, 3 December 1903.

23: Glasgow City Archives Collection: Queen's Cross Free Church Deacons' Court minutes, CH3/1346/3, 3 December 1903.

24: Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 49, Summer 1988, p. 2; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 51, Summer 1989, p. 12; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 53, Spring 1990, p. 2; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 54, Autumn 1990, p. 2; Simpson & Brown Architects, Queen's Cross Church, Glasgow: Conservation Statement, 2005, p. 17.

25: Charles Rennie Mackintosh, 'Architecture', in Pamela Robertson, ed., Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Architectural Papers, Wendlebury, Oxon: White Cockade in association with the Hunterian Art Gallery, 1990, p. 201–11.

26: Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 92, Summer 2007, p. 6.

27: Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 11, Spring 1976.

28: Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 39, Winter 1984–5; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 41, Autumn 1985, p. 3; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 49, Summer 1988, p. 2; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 51, Summer 1989, p. 12; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 52, Winter 1989, p. 6; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 53, Spring 1990, p. 2; Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 54, Autumn 1990, p. 2.

29: Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 88, Spring 2005, p. 3.

30: Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Newsletter, 92, Summer 2007, pp. 5–6.

31: A copy of the report (MBS13) is held by the Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society, Mackintosh Queen's Cross, 870 Garscube Road, Glasgow G20 7EL. The Mackintosh Buildings Survey was funded by The Monument Trust.

32: Academy Architecture, 14, July 1898, p. 65.

33: Glasgow Herald, 2 April 1898, p. 4.

34: Glasgow Herald, 9 September 1899, p. 10.

35: 'The Artistic Side of the Glasgow Exhibition', Architectural Review, 10, 1 August 1901, pp. 42–52.